11th CONGRESS OF SOUTH-EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES, SOFIA 2015
XIe CONGRÈS D'ÉTUDES SUD-EST EUROPÉENNES, SOFIA 2015
Session: Prolegomena to the European integration of South-East Europe/Les prolégomènes de l'intégration européenne du Sud-Est européen
Organizers: Răzvan THEODORESCU, Vasilka TĂPKOVA-ZAÏMOVA
Romanisation as an integrative process in the Balkans
Aleksandra NIKOLOSKA (Skopje)
Romanisation is the process of acculturation, integration and assimilation of the autochthonous population in the regions of the Roman Empire. It is a strategically defined process of enforcement of language, custom, culture, legal and ethical norms to the governed and less developed population by the Empire. Due to the romanisation the Roman world gained the necessary cultural unity leading towards homogeneous national feeling. The process of romanisation was more accentuated in the western parts of the Empire than in the eastern where the political and cultural life was already more developed. Lately, the term Romanisation coined originally by the historian F. Haverfield in 1905, has been avoided for it has been associated to the theory of the cultural imperialism. Disagreements and differences of opinion exist in the interpretation of the flow of the process and its political, sociological and cultural roots. This paper deals with some aspects of Romanisation in the Balkans, and especially in the province of Macedonia referring also to some of the existing theoretical debates.
Préoccupations d'histoire universelle dans les Pays Roumains au XVIIIe siècle
Andrei TIMOTIN (Bucarest)
Les préoccupations d'histoire universelle alliées à l'intérêt pour la culture historique occidentale ne se manifestent dans les Pays Roumains qu'à partir de l'accès aux écrits historiques des humanistes, d'abord polonais et allemands, en lien avec la nécessité de la composition d'une histoire des deux pays et de préciser leur place dans l'histoire européenne. Cette préoccupation apparaît d'abord en Moldavie, chez Grigore Ureche et Miron Costin, et en Valachie chez le stolnic Constantin Cantacuzène, qui avait étudié à Padoue et qui avait rassemblé la plus vaste bibliothèque des Pays Roumains à la fin du XVIIe siècle et au début du siècle suivant.
Cette communication se propose, en poursuivant les recherches de N. Iorga et de Paul Cernovodeanu, d'étudier l'évolution des préoccupations d'histoire universelle dans les Pays Roumains au XVIIIe siècle sous trois aspects:
a) Le premier en est l'intérêt pour les écrits d'histoire universelle parus en Occident manifesté par l'acquisition et l'utilisation de ces écrits par les princes et les nobles de Valachie et de Moldavie. Des témoignages de cet intérêt sont les bibliothèques du stolnic Constantin Cantacuzène de Mărgineni, du prince Constantin Brancovan de Horezu ou du prince Nicolas Mavrocordato de Văcărești, ainsi que la bibliothèque de l'Académie princière de Bucarest ou celle de l'Église métropolitaine fondée par Nicolas Mavrocordato et organisée ensuite par le métropolite Neofit Cretanul.
b) Le second aspect de ces préoccupations est la la diffusion de la culture historique occidentale dans l'Académie princière de Bucarest par l'intermédiaire des manuels d'histoire universelle, parmi lesquels une place importante revient à l'Histoire ancienne de Rollin dans la version néogrecque d'Al. Kankellarios publiée à Venise en 1750, ouvrage qui a joué un rôle important dans l'enseignement européen du XVIIIe siècle.
c) Le dernier aspect est l'élargissement de cette diffusion de la culture historique occidentale, dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle, par l'intermédiaire des traductions roumaines d'ouvrages d'histoire universelle, parmi lesquelles se distingue la traduction de l'allemand d'une Histoire universelle (Istoria a toată lumea) par Vlad Boțulescu de Mălăiești, le secrétaire de la famille du prince Étienne Cantacuzène (1714-1716).
The Paeonian culture in the Thraco-Macedonian world
Dragi MITREVSKI (Skopje)
Thanks to the excavations during the last 10 to 20 years on the historically proved Paeonian territory, now, in the great part, the Paeonian culture is determined, especially among the Iron Age communities.
From Homer until Herodotus, on the territory along the Vardar Valley up to the Struma valley to the East, a very indicative culture of the Iron Age has been developed. Many cultural manifestations, characteristic only for that time and territory, express a very strong and recognizable culture of the Paeonian tribes. In that way a Paeonian burial customs, Paeonian pottery and Paeonian cult bronzes are defined.
Inhumation in cist graves organized in the flat necropolises or under tumuli is exposed as a main burial ritual.
Similarly, unique types of Iron Age pottery has been created, but produced in two different ways. South Paeonian communities produced a wheel made pottery, matt painted with liner decoration. In the same time, to the northern Paeonian communities there were same shapes of pottery, but hand made and decorated by engraving.
The so called Paeonian Bronzes are the strongest expression of the Paeonian Iron Age culture. Different types of bronze pendants and amulets, connected to the Paeonian believes and ritual activities, has been used by priestess or female persons with a special place and role in the communities.
As the other communities north of the Hellenic world during the 5th century the Paeonians started to accept many values of the classical Hellenic culture, Hellenizing step by step their local culture. This way, together with the other Thracian and Macedonian tribes, they formed a unique Thracian - Macedonian world. All of them developed the same cultural values conditioned by the same relation with the Hellenic world to the South.
During the pre-Roman times they will be organized in their own political communities, but Paeonian independence will be limited only around the Bregalnica River. That area, today Ovce Pole and Štip region is known as a territory of the so called Independent Paeonians with their largest town of Bylazora, discovered in the vicinity of Sveti Nikole in the village of Knežje.
In the last 3 year of excavation, on the acropolis of Bylazora, a representative architecture was discovered. According to their disposition, conception and architectural and archaeological values it was determined as rulers' palaces. It seems to be residential to the well known Paeonian rulers such as; Likey, Patray Audoleon, Leon and Dropion. The palaces have been violently destroyed in the 3th century BC, which was the end of the short history of the Independent Paeonians.
Balkans unity/disunity and the Mediterranean economic system
Elisaveta TODOROVA (Cincinnati)
The geopolitical situation, relief and configuration of the Balkan Peninsula are conducive to outside influences, coming over land or by sea. Although old land highways such as Via Militaris or Via Egnatia connected Southeast Europe with Byzantine Constantinople or Ottoman Istanbul and the Mediterranean, the long coastline played a major role in the development of this region.
Between 11th/12th and 15th/16th centuries, or during the period of political fragmentation and shifting borders (after the Balkan lands were united at the start of this period by the Byzantine and by its end through the Ottoman Empire), political divisions did not hinder the economic activity, moreover because that was the time of European domination of the Mediterranean with well-developed trade networks.
Seacoasts, islands and large rivers, such as the Danube, served as avenues for connections, transportation and commerce bringing advanced Mediterranean techniques to the Balkan people – a process that is largely reflected (and studied) in terms of numismatics, material and artistic artifacts and literary works but not by comparing agreements with the Mediterranean powers which is the aim of this paper.
Interaction with local factors made long-distance trade manageable, regulated by diplomatic and commercial treaties that introduced European administrative, legal and judicial practices. Acceptance of the established rules and procedures facilitated collaboration and integrated the region commercially stimulating local production and productivity through regular contacts.
Due to a climate of economic cooperation created by means of agreements and practiced during the 13th–15th centuries, the advent of the Ottoman Empire did not isolate Southeastern Europe from the Mediterranean system, but with Dubrovnik merchants as proxies in both land and sea trade, Balkan lands remained a part of that system at least until the late 17th century.
Le modèle italien dans la littérature roumaine des XVIIe – XVIIIe siècles. Les traductions de l'italien de Vlad Boţulescu et leur édition récente
Emanuela TIMOTIN (Bucarest)
La littérature de provenance italienne est entrée dans la littérature roumaine par voie directe et indirecte. Du point de vue chronologique, ce sont les traductions indirectes qui apparaissent d'abord, c'est-à-dire les textes italiens traduits en roumain à partir des textes slavons. Ce n'est qu'à partir du début du XVIIIe siècle que les traductions directes de l'italien voient le jour. Ces dernières représentent, malgré leur nombre réduit, un volet important de la littérature roumaine des XVIIe – XVIIIe siècles, dans la mesure où elles dévoilent l'intérêt de certains acteurs culturels pour la littérature occidentale.
Les connaissances sur les traductions de l'italien en roumain se sont enrichies considérablement les dernières années suite à l'édition de l'œuvre de Vlad Boţulescu, le secrétaire de la famille du prince Étienne Cantacuzène (1714–1716). Son œuvre, préservé en trois manuscrits datant de 1763 – 1764 (ms. 67 et 68 des Archives d'État de Venise ; ms. slave 73 de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Vienne), comprend aussi plusieurs écrits traduits de l'italien : une Vie de Scanderbeg (éd. Timotin/Olar, 2013), une version du roman Balaam et Josaphat, un dictionnaire iroquois-roumain, et la description d'une cérémonie de canonisation (éd. Dima, 2013).
L'objectif de cette communication est de préciser le rôle de la cour de la Valachie, pendant les règnes de Constantin Brancovan et d'Étienne Cantacuzène, dans la promotion des traductions de l'italien, d'établir la place des traductions de l'italien réalisées par Vlad Boţulescu dans la tradition des textes roumains traduits de l'italien, et de montrer dans quelle mesure ces traductions véhiculent des thèmes qui circulaient déjà dans la littérature contemporaine grâce aux traductions de la littérature gréco-slave.
Turkish and Islamic terminology in the Eighteen-century Bulgarian and Bosnian Franciscan texts
Florence GRAHAM (Oxford)
This paper attempts to determine the extent to which eighteenth-century Bosnian and Bulgarian Franciscans identified themselves as Europeans vs. Balkan subjects of the Ottoman Empire through an analysis of Ottoman Turkish terminology used in Francisan religious writings of the time. During the eighteenth century, Catholic friars were often educated in Italy, frequently wrote in Italian and Latin and used Italian orthography when writing in their native languages. Despite their Western education and European religious affiliation, the Bosnian and Bulgarian Franciscans used a significant amount of Ottoman Turkish and even Islamic terminology in their homilies, retellings and interpretations of the Bible when writing in their native tongues. The first part of the paper briefly discusses the many core Ottoman Turkish loanwords employed by the Franciscans. These loanwords suggest the Franciscans wanted their writing to be understood by the local layman for whom a Turkish term might be more familiar than a Slavonic or Latin term: e.g. kladenec 'water well' is not used once in the Bulgarian texts while bunar with the same meaning is used 168 times. The next section looks at the possible political and religious motivation behind the semantic extension of Ottoman Turkish loanwords in Bosnian and Bulgarian. Special attention is given to Turkish/Slavonic synonymic pairs (e.g. evrei and čifut 'Jew'), which are used with subtle distinction, with the Turkish counterparts often developing or maintaining a negative connotation. Lastly, the significance of Islamic terminology used in homilies and retellings of the Bible is analysed with regard to determining the cultural identity of the Franciscans in eighteenth-century Bosnia and Bulgaria.
La littérature bogomile dans la culture populaire roumaine
Ionuţ Adrian PĂTULARU (Craiova)
La littérature bogomile s'inscrit dans les tourments spirituels de l'époque, quoiqu'elle ait été réceptionnée, chez les Roumains, plus tard que le phénomène doctrinaire à proprement parler, les textes d'origine bogomile étant attestés dans les siècles XIIIe-XIVe.
Les études modernes sur le bogomilisme débattent la problématique idéologique et socio-politique « en s'arrêtant sur ses origines, sur les rapports avec les autres travaux similaires qui lui ont succédé, sur les conceptions hérétiques et anti-féodales et, enfin, sur son influence et sa propagation au-delà des frontières de la Bulgarie ».
L'ancienne culture roumaine est conçue comme une réflexion philosophique sur le monde, en cherchant dans la perspective du destin individuel par la projection de la nature humaine, à laquelle se lient les sentiments du bien et du beau comme qualités foncières de l'homme.
Le caractère éthique de la littérature bogomile a impressionné et a été conforme aux aspects religieux transmis par les sermons, les homélies, présents dans nos églises orthodoxes.
Le problème de la création est un acte spirituel, un devoir moral, la condition et la possibilité d'entrée dans la vérité. Le bien et le mal représentent des situations dans la sphère inhérente de l'existence, que les hommes doivent utiliser avantageusement tant pour leur bonheur personnel que pour celui de la société où ils vivent. C'est pourquoi le mythe de la création est vivement discuté, en soulignant l'effort permanent de Dieu d'éliminer le mal et le travail satanique qui déforment l'intention positive du Créateur. La bonne nature de l'homme, que Dieu lui a donnée, peut être pervertie, profondément ébranlée par le travail démoniaque, manifesté concrètement, au niveau social, par l'existence des communautés fondées sur des lois injustes. L'imagination, le pouvoir d'argumentation et les situations alternatives où la nature humaine se trouve se constituent dans un acte de connaissance et de croyance.
Le sentiment religieux s'affirme par ses vraies raisons, par l'esprit de la nature humaine, par ce que Dieu a semé en nous comme besoin de vivre, comme pouvoir de raisonnement, comme aspiration au bonheur. Le premier homme de culture qui ait exploré le rôle du bogomilisme dans la culture populaire autochtone a été le savant B.P. Haşdeu, qui a traité le problème de la diffusion et de la traduction des apocryphes, mais aussi son influence dans la création populaire orale.
South-Eastern Europe in the 15th century – part of Europe or no? Aspects of similarity and diversity (based on Western travelers' accounts)
Ivayla POPOVA (Sofia)
Based on the information provided by western travellers who had visited Southeastern Europe during the 15th century, we shall scrutinize several basic issues that elucidate their views about this region as both an integral part of the European continent and the opposite, as a part of the European mainland loosely connected with the west European civilisation from cultural, historical and political point of view. The basic sub-topics are:
- The heritage of the Antiquity and the Balkans
- The local Balkan populace
- The Ottomans
Food in the Balkans during the Middle Ages, a view from West
Joanna BENCHEVA (Sofia)
The aim of my paper is to review the sources on how Western travellers to the Balkans were fed on the road during the XIth-XVth centuries. For this purpose I will study the Latin and Slavic sources. I aim to clarify the relation between the food offered to travellers and their social standing. For example, messengers and diplomats relied on good welcome and were sometimes invited to royal feasts. They also took advantage of the hospitality of their compatriots, ambassadors and representatives in the area and saw assistance for purchasing food from the market. Merchants and pilgrims also relied on the help of compatriots, purchased food from the market and visited taverns to seek food, drink and lodging. Soldiers were usually provided with a daily ration by the army supply transport, but in many cases relied on theft and robbery to obtain food and other provisions. I will also review the information of how travellers prepared for the journey, i.e. what items were included in the food reserve, the tools for the preparation of food and what guides for food provision in foreign lands they followed.
The image of the Cumans in Catholic Europe and the Balkans
Konstantin GOLEV (Sofia)
The Cuman-Qipčaq tribal community dominated the Ponto-Caspian and the western parts of the Central Asian steppes for almost two centuries – since the mid-11th to the first several decades of the 13th century. Their vast steppe dominions stretched along the broad contact zone between the nomads and the sown – the so called Outside world. The Cuman-Qipčaq clans interacted with many different sedentary societies, among which can be mentioned the Rus' principalities, The Hungarian Kingdom of Saint Ishtvan, the Georgian kings and queens, the atabegs of Azerbaijan, the Khwārezm-Shāhs of Central Asia, etc. The neighbors of the Cumans in the Balkans formed a different multilayered segment, as between the 11th and the 13th centuries the peninsula sаw the alternations of many different political actors, both with Orthodox and Catholic affiliations.
As a result of their long cohabitation with many different sedentary societies in different parts of Dasht-Qipčaq (The Cuman plain), the elite of this nomad community established traditional contacts and relations with the neighboring settled rulers. The main goal which the nomads fallowed during these interactions was to find suitable access to the resources of the agrarian Outside world. Thus the steppe chiefs looked for opportunities to exercise their long lasting superiority in the art of warfare – either as invaders, allies, mercenaries or participants in the internal strife in the Outside world. Their martial skills made the Cumans desired allies in the neighboring rulers' armies and led to the establishment of traditional relations and marriage connections between particular royal houses and their steppe partners (see for example the house of Khwārezm-Shāhs, the different branches in the Rurik's dynasty in Rus', etc.). The Mongol invasion in Dasht-Qipčaq and the political doom of the Dasht-Qipčaq community did not necessarily destroy all nods in this network and sometimes even strengthen them, as shows the example of the Cuman Migration in Hungary.
Thus in the 12th and in particularly in the 13th century many rulers in East-Central and South-East Europe used Cuman auxiliaries in their campaigns. Maybe the most notable examples were the Asenids of Bulgaria, the Arpads in Hungary, and the Laskaridis and Paleologans from Nicaea. But the Cuman military aid was not restricted to them and was used by other as well, including the Latin barons of Constantinople. All these actors used their nomad allies or mercenaries to support their campaigns not only against each other in East-Central Europe but also on the battlefields in other parts of the continent, as shown by the Italian and Central-European expeditions of the Hungarian Cuman contingents. Tus both Catholic and Orthodox rulers used the support of the pagan steppe dwellers and at the same time were victims of their raids. The aim of purposed presentation is to research the ideological arguments which the Christian rulers used against their opponents, that benefited by the Cuman aid.
How European was the 18th century in the South-East European area?
Lia Brad CHISACOF (Bucharest)
A deep-going analysis of the 18th cent.in the Balkans, which gather in a way or another in the Romanian Principalities, reveals a much more profound taste for and knowledge of its Western European counter-part than revealed so far.
In point of political ideology the quest for a valid model was tellingly relentless.An epitome in this quest was one of the most imaginative projects for a constitution , belonging to Dumitrache Sturza and Ioan Cantacuzino which not only derived its name from La monarchie aristo-démocratique of Louis Turquet de Mayerne , a project meant for the Lower Countries but drew heavily on the French Constitutions of 1793 and 1795, observing all along Le secret des francmacons of Pérau.
Specific forms of freemasonry life inspired by the Western models were witnessed with outstanding results in drawing people together in the effort of modernization.
The original lay literature was prose as such , then a genre which can be said to announce the literature of the absurd (which was invented in the same area two centuries after), much theatre and a kind of local entertaining poetry set on music. In the first quarter of the 18th cent. there was an attempt to imitate the liturgical theatre of the West in the orthodox church. If public performances were more of a wishful aim inspired by what was going on in related Transylvania,Moliere for instance was translated in his entirety and there were original texts imitating him but in a totally adapted manner. The social role of the theatre was achieved either through perusals or performances in the puppet theatre.
The translations from Western languages ranged from mirrors of the princes (which were more of handbooks than guides for a moral behavior) to military guides , instructions for good baking and of course much entertaining literature.
Imparting translations were the linguistic skills. Alongside with the liturgical language, the cultivation of the vernaculars, the knowledge of ancient Greek, the actual knowledge of Ottoman languages, actually the proficiency in Western (mainly Italian, French and German) languages was remarkable. If at the beginning of the century that was the privilege of an elite, by the ending decades it spread more widely with as a result the afore mentioned translations of which most were adaptations.
Contacts culturels entre le Sud-Est européen et l'Europe centrale, XIe-XVIIIe siècles – aspects précurseurs de l'intégration européenne
Vasilka TĂPKOVA-ZAÏMOVA (Sofia)
A partir du 11e s. s'intensifient les contacts entre les dynasties chrétiennes de l'Occident, Byzance et les Etats balkaniques. Ce rapprochement de part et d'autre concerne surtout le monde catholique et le monde orthodoxe. Il existe cependant plus tard une tendance de contacts culturels également avec les Ottomans au début de leur pouvoir dans les Balkans. Cet élargissement général se manifeste nettement lorsque les voies de communication s'élargissent. Il indique ce que représentera le monde de l'Europe chrétienne à l'époque de la Renaissance.
Je me penche dans mon rapport sur la manière dont la plupart des spécialistes d'aujourd'hui considèrent les contacts sus-mentionnés avant l'époque d'un début de modernisation.
Lychnidos, centre d'intégration culturelle au temps romain
Vera BITRAKOVA – GROZDANOVA (Skopje)
Toujours sur la ligne reliant l'Adriatique et la mer Egée, dans la ville antique de Lychnidos étaient introduites et maintenues de nombreuses valeurs culturelles véhiculées par les commerçants, les soldats et les nouveaux événements politiques. L'échange de certains progrès dans le domaine de l'économie, l'artisanat et la création culturelle n'était qu'un annonciateur de manifestations culturelles plus profondes. Dans cette occasion, nous présenterons quelques segments des processus d'intégration se produisant dans cette ville à poléogénèse plus longue qui, avant l'arrivée des Romains, a connu un développement de sa vie culturelle. Les Romains apporteront nombre d'innovations qui seront progressivement intégrées dans la vie sociale et culturelle de l'espace entier de l'ager lychnidien. Toutes ces nouvelles font partie des manifestations ressenties plus ou moins fortement dans les Balkans et constituent le koiné culturel dans les provinces romaines.
Justiniana prima et le christianisme apostolique – base de conflicts ou bien un héritage commun des Balkans
Vessela TRAYKOVA (Sofia)
Je cherche les causes qui ont mené l'empéreur Justinian à fonder l'archiépiscopie Justiniana prima. Aussi les liens de cette église avec le christianisme apostolique dans les Balkans. Aussi la parenté entre ce christianisme et l'ancienne culture des mystères. Aussi les hérétiers de Justiniana prima et la spécificité de cette église par rapport à celles de Constantinople et de Rôme. On pose la question – Justiniana prima est-elle un héritage d'un peuple particulier ou bien des Balkans (et d'Europe).
The various aspects of the Roman communications in the triangle Timacum Maius, Ratiaria, Pautalia: New epigraphic and archaeological testimonies
Vladimir PETROVIĆ (Belgrade)
The geographical territory that is covered by my contribution largely coincides with the areas of Eastern Serbia and Western Bulgaria, the frontier zone of three Roman provinces: Moesia Superior, Moesia Inferior and Thracia and the language barrier between Latin and Greek. This is the area that was crossed by the several very important Trans-Balkan Roman communication lines that where not always mentioned in the historical sources, like Roman itineraries (itineraria), even they represented the strong military, mining, cultural and balneological links.
This time I would like to concentrate myself on the very significant, but so far scientifically less elaborated communication routes. For the starting point I would chose the large Roman settlement of Timacum Maius, near modern Svrljig, that is situated in the upstream of Timachus River valley, close to the municipal territory of ancient Naissus, the well known crossroad of major roman roads in Central Balkans. For eight consecutive years, with our French colleagues from Bordeaux University, we are investigated the remains of Timacum Maius, that is mentioned in Tabula Peutingeriana as the first station on the Roman road from Naissus in the northeastern direction to Danube and Colonia Ulpia Traiana Ratiaria. The latest archaeological and epigraphic results shad new light on the area of this important communication line, its military organization, connections with Danube frontier (limes), mining and balneological character. On the other side, recently discovered or rediscovered milestones as well as the epigraphic inscriptions points to the importance and character of the second, south-eastern communication line that linked Timacum Maius and Pautalia, situated in the region of Thracian Dentheletica in western Bulgaria, which is not mentioned in the Roman itinerary sources.
Session: The Balkans and the European Idea in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries/Les Balkans et l'idée européenne aux XIXe et XXe siècles
Organizers: Alexandre KOSTOV, Francesco GUIDA
Wind of change in the Balkans: Balkan multilateral cooperation during the Cold War
Alin ANDRONACHE (Iaşi)
This paper will attempt to investigate a largely unstudied issue of Cold War history, i.e. the question of multilateral cooperation in the Balkan region.
Primarily based on recently declassified Romanian archival sources, as well as documents made available by the digital archive of the Cold War International History Project, the proposed study will focus on the following questions: What was the rationale behind the initiation and sustainment of a multilateral cooperation process within the Balkan Peninsula during the Cold War?; What were the incentives and the obstacles facing this process?; What was the interplay between the international factors and the internal dynamics of the Balkan region in influencing the evolution of this process? and How did this process impact on the general political atmosphere in the region during the period under discussion? At the same time, our research intends to look upon the long term significance and implications of this process for the post-Cold War development and implementation of the concept of Balkan multilateral cooperation.
The basic hypotheses of this study asserts the idea that although it did not have the grand scale of the interwar period or the dynamic of the post-Cold War era, Balkan regional cooperation was a reality of Europe during the Iron Curtain years. Neither the persistence of the traditional political and territorial disputes between the Balkan states nor the ideological, economic and military divisions of the Cold War could completely suppress the need for cooperation.
Strongly influenced by the principles and the spirit of the 1975 Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Helsinki Final Act, the convening, at the Greek government's initiative, of the 1976 Balkan Conference in Athens was a first effort in the direction of establishing a mechanism for multilateral cooperation in the region. The distinctive feature of this endeavour lay in its multidimensional character, as well as in the fact that it tried to overcome the bloc mentality of past initiatives: „us vs them", setting one group of countries against another, thus producing, in reality, more division than unity among Balkan states.
In the first years following the Athens Conference, the dynamic of the Balkan multilateral cooperation process remained timid, avoiding to take on a political character, while concentrating on other, more technical dimensions of cooperation, most notably in the fields of transportation, communications, energy resources and environmental protection. During the 1980s, however, there was a visible increase in momentum. This was also encouraged by the new realities in international relations, marked by an improved climate in the relations between the superpowers, as well as the perestroika process underway in most European socialist countries. Within this context, the Belgrade Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of the Balkan countries, held in February 1988, could be considered the culmination of this development, as well as a ground setting effort for post-Cold War cooperation initiatives in the region.
Regardless of its inherent limitations, Balkan multilateral cooperation during the Cold War holds a symbolic importance, on the one hand because it came into being as a genuine Balkan initiative and on the other hand because it proved that regional cooperation, in this tumultuous and complicated area, was not, contrary to many beliefs, a utopian idea. In fact, it proved that after the „great transformation", which saw the fall of the Iron Curtain, Balkan multilateral cooperation could be upheld as a feasible and, at the same time, necessary process of healing, one that would help bring stability and progress to the region and which, ultimately, would facilitate integration of its constituent parts within the general political and economic European developments.
Hungary and the co-operation of national states in South Europe in the 20th century
Arpad HORNYAK (Budapest)
The territorial changes after World War I. resulted in a temporary setback to the influence of the Great Powers in the Balkans and Central Europe. However, the existence of new small states did not bring a satisfactory solution for the future. Only greater territorial units could give adequate responses on the global economic and world political challenges. This was recognized by the states of the region especially from the end of the 1920's and plans mushroomed from the 1930's proposing the co-operations of the small nations of the Balkan Peninsula and Southeast Europe. Hungary, despite it lost both World Wars eagerly observed the attempts of the Balkan States to co-operate and was in many occasions ready to participate in planning and also to be involved in the planes related to different types of collaboration between the Balkan States and nations of Central Europe. Especially in the period from the third decade of the 20th century up to 1948 when by establishing the one party communist regimes in the Eastern part of Europe put an end to this endeavours. In my paper I would like to present the standpoints of the Hungarian political circles and public opinion regarding the integration plans in South-East Europe based on archival sources, memoires and most relevant newspapers before and after the World War II.
Social networks as a factor in the railway policy of the Ottoman Empire
Boryana ANTONOVA (Sofia)
In a bid to adapt to the demands of Modern times, the Ottoman Empire experienced major transformation during the 'long nineteenth century' (1789-1914). Important phase of this process was the so called "Tanzimat" (1839-1876). The reorganization policy implemented in this period was incited by internal forces. However during the Tanzimat the Western great powers gradually started to exercise influence on the empire. The Crimean war (1853-1856) gave a significant impetus to this process. By the Treaty of Paris, which announced the end of the conflict, the Ottoman Empire was integrated in the Concert of Europe, e.g. in the European system of international relations.
Another result of the enhancing European influence over the state of the Sultan in the 1850s was the declaration for continuation of the reforms made by the Ottoman government with the Imperial Reform Edict of 1856. One of the key elements in the modernization program of the Sublime Porte during the next two decades was the improvement of the communications in the state. This measure was seen as a tool for achieving economic and political progress.
The Ottoman reformers attach a great importance to railways as a means of modernization. This is why by the mid-1850s the Sublime Porte was trying to develop railway transport in the empire. However it had two major problems related to the construction of a railway infrastructure – lack of capital and lack of know-how. Due to these reasons the Sublime Porte developed a system of concession granting to a foreign entrepreneurs who started to construct and explore the Ottoman railways. As a result of this policy until the end of the Tanzimat period the basis of the Rumelian railway network was laid.
The new communication system build in the European provinces of the empire during this period was far from perfect. This was due to the wide speculation opportunities provided by the system of concession granting in the Ottoman State.
This presentation is addressed to the problems of the railway construction in the province of Rumelia in the second stage of the Tanzimat (1858-1876) and the place of the foreign (European) investors as a factor in the Ottoman railway policy. It will focus on the social networking of the main concessionaries of the Rumelian railways as a tool for achieving financial goals in the process of acquiring concessions, building and exploring railways in the Ottoman Balkans. Such is for example the Parisian banker baron Maurice de Hirsh. His strong connections with influential European banker houses, such as the Bischofcheims and the Goldsmids, had important role in realizing his financial maneuvers concerning the Ottoman railways in South-East Europe.
Federalism in the era of nationalism: West European proposals for Balkan political organization
Eleonora NAXIDOU (Komotini)
This paper examines the idea of political unification in the form of an Eastern or Balkan federation which originated in Western Europe at the era of nationalism. It was brought up as one of the options for settling the Eastern Question at the onset of the 19th century, but in effect had very little impact and no practical significance. Expressed by a few individuals -diplomats, intellectuals, publicists and revolutionaries- at different times and under different circumstances, it comprised an assortment of proposals, which were of a rather general and somewhat vague character rather than consisting of any concrete, detailed plans that were meant for implementation. Besides, never was there any real political influence nor was this prospect taken seriously into account as having the capacity to form a realistic policy to arrange the political future of Eastern and Southeastern Europe. In this context the paper presents how the French writer Cyprien Robert envisaged the transformation of the Ottoman Empire into two confederations: one Christian or 'Greco-Slave' in the European territories, and one Muslim in Asia, and the model of a federal unification of Eastern Europe which was favoured by certain Italian revolutionaries such as the Venetian Marco Antonio Canini and Giuseppe Mazzini. The former proposed the formation of the 'United States of the East' made up of a Danubian and a Byzantine confederation; the latter suggested the foundation of a Yugoslav state including Serbia, Carinthia, Croatia, Montenegro, Dalmatia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, whereas in 1866, he opted for the replacement of the Habsburg and the Ottoman Empire by a Danubian and a Slavo-Hellenic confederation both allied to Italy. In addition the paper relates the abovementioned visions with national ideology.
Transformations socio-économiques et pénétration occidentale au XIXe siècle dans le Sud-Est européen: Le cas de Salonique d'après les registres ottomanes
Emilie THEMOPOULOU (Athènes)
Dans notre communication nous examinerons les transformations économiques et sociales dans les grandes villes de l'Empire ottoman et notamment à Salonique au XIXe siècle. Nous allons étudier dans une première étape le corps des métiers exercés à Salonique et la taxation imposée dans les trois communautés principales de la ville d'après les informations fournies par des sources ottomanes. Les Chrétiens, les juifs et les musulmans d'après les informations importantes fournies par des sources ottomanes. Nous allons étudier par la suite la diversification socioprofessionnelle de la ville par rapport au corps des métiers existant. Nous insisterons sur les facteurs spécifiques des transformations économiques, notamment sur la pénétration occidentale et le développement économique qui avait pour impact le renouvellement de la stratification sociale à l'intérieur de chaque groupe ethnique dans la société de la ville.
Au milieu du XIXe siècle, l'évolution de Salonique en fonction des besoins du marché et les mutations sociales de l'époque du Tanzimat eurent pour conséquence la formation de groupes socio-économiques nouveaux. L'adaptation du commerce de la ville aux conditions du commerce international engendrait la diversification professionnelle dans la société de Salonique par l'existence de nouveaux métiers adaptés aux conditions de l'époque. La ville attirait en effet des hommes d'affaires des négociants et entrepreneurs orientés vers de nouvelles branches d'activités. Le développement des communications maritimes et terrestres, favorisait en effet la position de ces négociants et entrepreneurs et l'influence économique qu'ils sur la population de Salonique.
Les transformations examinées sont en fait l'expression du renouvellement de la structure sociale d'une société en pleine mutation comme fut celle de Salonique à l'aube du XXe siècle.
Croatia and the European idea after the breakup of Yugoslavia
Irina OGNYANOVA (Sofia)
On July 1, 2013 Croatia was the second former Yugoslav Republic which became part of the European Union, but that happened nine years after Slovenia. The nationalism, dominating on the Croatian political scene in the 1990s was hostile to the very idea of united Europe.
In 1991 when a great part of the Croatian territory was under Serbian control, the Western countries were on the side of Croatia which needed to be protected against Miloshevic's aggression. But this positive image quickly changed after the participation of the new state in the war in Bosnia and Hercegovina in 1992–1995, and especially after the military operation „Storm" in the summer of 1995, when around 300,000 Croatian Serbs were forced to leave their homeland. Although Tudjman signed the peace treaty in Dayton, European politicians in 1997 did not invite the country to start negotiations for accession to the EU.
So, Tudjman appeared as a "Savior" to the Croats not only from the Serbian threat, but also from the "Great Powers" that "threaten" the national interests of the country. The Croatian President felt the winner of the war on Yugoslav territory and rejected with confidence what he considered "unfair" EU requirements. He was against every initiative for the regional cooperation which was interpreted as an attempt by the West to restore the "new Yugoslavia". The result of the blooming Croatian nationalism in the 1990s was the international isolation of the country. Building its own independent national state Croats were very suspicious to all mega-national organizations and projects and their country had very far-away perspectives for the accession to the Euro-Atlantic structures.
The little Entente – an economic aspect of the Alliance
Ivana ŽEBEC (Zagreb)
In Geneva, in 1933 The Pact of the Organization of the Little Entente (also known as The Reorganization Pact) was signed between Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia. Although primarily defense alliance when Little Entente was founded, the new Pact, especially in its preamble and in the Article 7, focuses on strengthening of economic ties with Central European States as well. To achieve that aim the Economic Council of the States of the Little Entente was founded. The Economic Council task was to coordinate economic interests of the three States, either among themselves or in their relations with third States and it functioned as an auxiliary advisory organ of the Permanent Council in the conduct of its general policy.
Furthermore, the Pact emphasized forming of an advanced international unit, which may be acceded to by other States in order to stabilize conditions in Central Europe. Therefore, for the purpose of this paper, the various agreements among the three States regarding the economic policy issues will be analyzed in order to stress out one of the most neglected sides of the alliance – the effort of normalizing the international trade and economic integration of the Little Entente.
In the paper will be point out as well that the Little Entente politically showed noticeable degree of international cooperation during several years but economically it failed to overcome the narrow regional boundaries.
The construction of Bulgarian national identity and its reflection in Bulgarian media in 1870s
Wenshuang LIN ( Beijing)
The present paper probes deeply into the Bulgarian public policies by quoting more than 20 messages from the Bulgarian newspapers of around 1870s. The author picks mostly the speeches of some national elites, represented by Georgi Rakovski, Lyuben Karavelov. Rakovski was the first ideologist and organizer of Bulgarian national liberation movement, his extensive experiences and theoretical ideas were highly inherited by the later generations in their struggle. The newspaper articles being examined in this paper are mainly from the newspapers edited by the two figures – Danube Swan (Дунавски лебед), Liberty (Свобода) and Independence (Независимост). Through text analysis, the pre-Liberation public opinions, the people's concerns and the response to major events could be perceived.
Prior to the organized revolutionary movement, the Bulgarians attempted to separate their Church from the domination of the Constantinople Patriarchate. In order to suppress the negative attitude taken by Russia on the independence of the Bulgarian Church, Bulgaria turned to other Western Powers for help. The Church issue always put the Bulgarian press on the defensive even after "Bulgarian Exarchate" was restored by a decree of the Sultan in 1870. The debate on the preparation of revolution in the press focused on the either-or situation – to count on the Great Powers or on self-strength, which also involved expectations and suspicions towards Russian aid. The controversy between these two philosophies showed public confusion, which might be one of the reasons for the lack of revolutionary preparation. The public responses to Russo-Turkish War 1877-1878 and its aftermath reflected that the Bulgarians were grateful to the liberation and independence brought by Russia, and to a greater degree, however, they feared being actually controlled by Russia. This explains the ambiguous attitude of the Bulgarian toward Russia, as well as indicates the orientation of the Bulgarian national identity.
European approaches of Bulgarian Church, 1930
Maria LITINA (Athens)
The period 1930-1935 is characterized by attempts of the Balkan countries for mutual rapprochement despite the existing national differences. At the same time in its effort to move beyond the geographical Balkan confines and marginalization, the Bulgarian Church looked to a wider European future. The renewal of its dialogue with the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, in the hope of healing the Schism that existed since 1872, is a good example of this European dimension, as it coincides with the participation of representatives of the Bulgarian Church in the Lambeth Palace intercommunal Conference held under the auspices of the Anglican Church in London in 1930. Looking at discussions held behind the scenes before, during and after the Conference we get a clearer picture of the reactions to the efforts of the Bulgarian Church to build alliances and establish its formal recognition as an independent Church among other Churches, Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Protestant. The research, based also on unpublished documents preserved in Lambeth Palace Library, is part of a larger project concerning the Church of Bulgaria and its ecclesiastical relations with other Christian Churches in both East and West.
European identity in the Balkans? The historical background since the 19th century
Roumiana PRESHLENOVA (Sofia)
The paper will explore the shaping of the idea of Europe in the Balkans during the 19th century as well as its bearers – the educated elites, the political class, representatives of the business circles, media. It will provide examples showing Pro and Anti Europe reactions in the particular countries provoked by external agents, initiatives, dependencies. They will be analyzed in the context of the dichotomy Europe-Orient as part of the post-Ottoman problems and of the processes of building up national and collective identities within it. Further, the attempt will be made at revealing the "mapping" of the respective country in the ideological and cultural terms of the time. The practices and mechanisms of creating an European identity before the Balkan Wars will be an issues of special interest.
South-East Europe and Pan-Europe – an unaccomplished project in the interwar period
Rumiana KONEVA (Vienna)
Historically and geographically the Balkan nations belong to the European family. They have been aware of that throughout the centuries and although, because of complex external and often internal factors, they have failed to unite, they have developed their cultures in the direction of Europe and Europeanism.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, led by national-centric ambitions they have not always managed to reach the heights of Europeanism in the modern sense, although their intellectual elites have adopted European values and most of them have been brought up with them.
However, the same is true for the whole of Europe, therefore European nations were faced with an unknown until then anti-European phenomenon - World War I, or as it used to be called - the European War. This war, which ended in despair for all combatants and took the lives of millions of Europeans, which wrecked so many human destinies and settled in the souls of the orphaned families the bitterness of the senseless destruction of men was also the first major European failure.
One of the most powerful responses to this failure was the Pan-European movement, dating back to 1922 with the first publication on that topic of Count Nikolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi.
There has never been in the world such other movement to gain so much power for four years only, which was manifested at the First Pan-European Congress in 1926 in Vienna. From the Balkan countries in that congress took part only representatives of Bulgaria and Greece, and after it were established sections in the other Balkan countries - first in Bulgaria, then in Yugoslavia, Romania, Greece.
Each of these countries, however, showed nationally superimposed views to the general idea of the Europeans. Therefore we could not talk about uniformity in the views on Pan-Europa in the Balkans. Nevertheless, the beginning was laid and revealing the specificities and the national differences in the attitude towards a future united Europe is an important part of the overall cultural and political disposition of the people of the European Southeast towards togetherness.
On the basis of newly discovered evidence in the report will be made conclusions about the national stereotypes and their reproduction in the pan-European proposal.
Greece as 'the bearer of European civilization in the East': The European idea as propaganda in the wake of the First World War, 1919-22
Spyridon G. PLOUMIDIS (Athens)
The First World War was undoubtedly the greatest event of its time, not only for what happened during it but also for its subsequent impact. The peace settlement and the establishment of a New World of free and democratic nations was the pre-eminent political legacy of the conflict. The peacemaking process was evidently an onerous task, exacerbated by disunity and disagreements over the treaty terms. Faced with these challenges, Greece's propagandist campaign at the Paris Peace Conference focused on the European idea. Greece was to be as 'the bearer of European civilization in the East'. The official Greek discourse on the Asia Minor Campaign (1919-22) was to follow this pattern. The Greek army was fulfilling a peacemaking and civilizing mission in the Near East.
The aim of my paper is to closely examine the parameters of the Greek propagandist campaign and to highlight the extensive use of the European idea by Greek propaganda. The roots of this policy are to be traced in the discourse of the Greek Greater Idea (Megali Idea), first espoused in 1844, and more particularly in the ideological and propagandist arguments of the allied Balkan nations in their confrontation with Turkey in 1912-13. In 1919-22, Greek civility was contrasted to Turkish barbarism, and Asia Minor (in its capacity as the birthplace of eminent ancient Greek philosophers and scientists) was pronounced as the cradle of European civilization. Furthermore, Greece was proclaimed as the bulwark against Pan-Germanism and Pan-Slavism (i.e. Bolshevism). The debacle of 1922 proved that this misuse of the European idea was defunct and certainly did not have a real resonance in the European audience.
Influence of French and Italian European projects on Yugoslav reevaluation of Regional pacts (1928-1934)
Srđan MICIĆ (Belgrade)
Changing international political climate and the Great depression had initiated broad discussions on reorganization of international cooperation for preservation of Peace in Europe, in late 1920s and early 1930s. During the turbulent period of awakening political revisionism and economy crisis, Yugoslavia was closely following changing attitudes of France and Italy. French plan for Regional pact for mutual assistance of European continental countries and Italian plan for reestablishment of the Directory of Great Powers Europe through project of Patto a Quattro were opposing two basically different ideas. One was involving cooperation of all/most continental states no mater of their size or strength, while the other was projecting domination of the Great Powers. Although the Great Britain, Germany and the U.S.S.R. had also initiatives in the reorganization of Peace in Europe, their projects did not have same significance as French and Italian plans did for the Yugoslav Foreign Policy. Yugoslav statesmen had to reconsider future role of regional pacts in the scope of the League of Nations policies, Brian-Kellogg Pact and projected pacts for the East European countries. They came to the conclusion that regional pacts would remain important factor for preservation of Peace in Europe. That assumption was one of the factors for Yugoslav activities, since 1932, on strengthening existing and creating new alliances in Central Europe and in the Balkans, two regions which were of the greatest importance for Yugoslav Foreign Policy. Therefore, Yugoslavia was working on reorganization of the Little Entente in and creation of the Balkan Entente in 1932-1934.
La crise économique et financière européenne et les implications sur le processus d'intégration
Taki FITI, Marica ANTOVSKA (Skopje)
In this paper, first, are summarized the causes of the European debt crisis and its implications on the financial and real sector of the EU Member States. The thesis of the authors is that the Great Recession of 2007 - 2009 will have a significant negative impact on EU enlargement and integration processes within the EU. The problems of macroeconomic convergence (real and nominal) within the EU are further complicated due to high budget deficits and cumulation of public debt, more difficult access of the countries to the capital markets, weaker pace of foreign direct investment and shrunken flows of goods and services between the economies. These factors will particularly affect countries on the periphery of the EU (which are already members of the EU) and countries with special status candidates for EU membership. But regardless of this, the countries that aspirant in the future to join the EU will have to ensure macroeconomic stability through prudent policies (fiscal and monetary), dynamic economic growth and empowerment for creating of new workplaces.
Becoming European-like: The Bulgarian community in Salonica in the early 20th century
Yura KONSTANTINOVA (Sofia)
In the early 20th century the small Bulgarian community in Salonica (8% of the population) consisted mostly of migrants from the nearby villages and towns. It is said that among them the European cultural influence infiltrates considerably later than among another nationalities in the city. Exactly the 'Europeanization' of the Bulgarian community in Salonica is the focus of my proposal. The aim of the presentation is to explore the ways through which the European ideas influenced the Bulgarian population in the city and to set the chronological framework of this process. My research is focused on the change of mentality, because the dissemination of the typical to the period ideologies - nationalism, socialism, anarchism, ext., has been comprehensively researched in the historiography. However, If we look at the European ideas in terms of the changes they bring in the everyday live of the ordinary people, we will better understand why these ideas are so exciting and attractive.
Session: Greater Europe and the Activity of the IMS Regional Association for the Study of Music in the Balkans/ La Grande Europe et les activités de l'Association régionale de l'étude de la musique dans les Balkans
Organizers: Svetlana KUJUMDZHIEVA, Tilman SEEBASS
"Mugham Opera" of the Silk road: The Silk road ensemble with Yo-Yo Ma creates new rendition of the story of Layla and Majnun
Aida HUSEYNOVA (Bloomington)
This paper is based on my experience of working in the capacity of a research advisor with the Silk Road Ensemble under artistic direction of cellist Yo-Yo Ma. In 2007, the Silk Road Ensemble created a new chamber arrangement of the opera written by Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyli (1885-1948) in 1908 and recognized as the first opera not only in Azerbaijan but also in the entire Muslim East. From 2007 to 2009, this arrangement became a highlight of the Silk Road Ensemble's repertoire being introduced to audiences in Europe, Asia, and North America. The plot of Hajibeyli's opera was based on the ancient legend of Layla and Majnun, the two ill-fated lovers, often referred to as Romeo and Juliet of the East. As for the music contents, Hajibeyli's work is defined as "mugham opera" as it features a unique fusion of the features of Western opera with mugham, quintessential genre of traditional music of Azerbaijan.
The new arrangement preserves the spirit of the Hajibeyli's opera as both literary and musical contents derive from the original score. Meanwhile, essential changes have been made that transformed the aesthetics, as well as stylistic and genre characteristics of Hajibeyli's work into a new distinct concept.
First, three-and-half hour long epic opera has been compressed into a forty-five minute long piece. Only main protagonists remain on stage. To compensate for the absence of the other characters, the authors of the new arrangement increased the value of each timbre. Every instrument is highly personified, and altogether, they create an illusion of many voices surrounding the main protagonists.
Second, the new arrangement presents a different balance between the two main components of the score: standard operatic episodes, such as choruses, ensembles and instrumental pieces, and mughams used as the main solo characteristics of the operatic heroes. In the original score, these two components co-existed, without being interspersed. Ensembles and choruses were fully notated and performed by singers and a symphony orchestra. Distinctively, mughams were included in the opera in their original form: unwritten and improvised. They were performed by the singers with the accompaniment of traditional mugham trio. In the new arrangement, mugham episodes involve not only traditional musicians but also the rest of the ensemble, and all operatic episodes in a Western format allow significant amount of improvisation. As a result, these two components are firmly integrated with each other increasing stylistic consistency of the work.
Hajibeyli was aware of the large multicultural span of his project: the story of Layla and Majnun is widely spread throughout Middle East and Central Asia, and mugham is a branch of maqam tradition, also typical for this region. However, Azerbaijani composer narrowed the aesthetics and stylistic scope of his first opera down to the demands of his native music and culture. The Silk Road Ensemble expanded it back to the vast region of the Silk Road. The new arrangement is shaped by many cultural and musical energies coming from various sources. "Mugham opera" of Azerbaijan has transformed into the "mugham opera" of the Silk Road.
The outline of musical life of Tvrđa through history (from the 15th century to 1941)
Brankica BAN (Osijek)
"Tvrđa" is a part of Osijek (one could say a 'Town within the town'). It is also known as the 'Inner city'. Therefore this paper attempts to briefly describe 'old Osijek' (and the circumstances of that period). It provides a description of old Osijek, called Mursa at that time. The data about music and culture of that period is very scarce. The initial information refers to church music only. The first mentioned musicians were the Franciscans and Jesuits appeared in 1687. This was the period of re-Christianisation of the town. After the liberation from Ottoman rule, the Franciscans became the first inhabitants of Tvrđa. The first teacher in Tvrđa was an organ player (mentioned in 1698). According to the Census, Tvrđa was then mainly populated by soldiers and German people. The following musicians had a significant role in the promotion of church music: father Ivan Velikanović (1723-1803), Petar Knežević (1702-1768), Josip Pavišević (1734-1803), etc. A public school in Tvrđa was founded in 1690 and the first "organista et ludi magister..." was Josef Pömer in 1698. The other known teachers were the musicians: David Heimb, an organ player (date unknown); Liborius Marker (organista recenter adveniens), etc. Other significant teachers were the organ players: J. Oberritter 1820/29, F. Oberriter 1829/45, I. N. Hummel (1845/70), A. Truhelka, a teacher, organ player and composer 1870/7, Đ. Rožić (1877/78.), I. Žak (1878-1914) and J. Kamnikar (1914-1941?).
Furthermore, the first organised singing and music association in Osijek was "Essegger Kirchen Musik-Verein" founded in Tvrđa in 1850 by J. N. Hummel, a teacher and organ player. In 1858 he also founded an association for secular music "Essegger Liedertafel". In 1862 both associations merged into "Essegger Gesangs-Verein" which existed until 1876.
The Importance and use of Bulgarian folk music and its authenticity
Deniza POPOVA (Berlin)
The understanding of Bulgarian folk music depends on a variety of definitions. It begins during the period of national rebirth and proceeds with the extensive work of musicologists during the socialist period until today. The definitions can be summarised chronologically in the history of Ethnomusicology in Bulgaria. Selected examples help to explain, how the use of the term authentic folk music. It has changed over the centuries while the scientific definition remains constant. Currently, the accessibility to musical materials is particularly important (by databases, archives, instruments, notes, audio, etc.).
The question "Which kind of scholarly intervention in the process of making music is useful, wise and reasonable?" will be answered by the current observations concerning the present experience with the use and the reception of Bulgarian folk music in Bulgaria and in other countries, especially in Germany. The focus is on the changing perception and the knowledge about traditional music. It relates different periods and places with the present concept of "authentic Bulgarian folk music."
The presentation is based on my recently published book, and I would like to update the story in it: Deniza Popova: Authentizität, Medialität und Identität. Wege der Definition und Transformation 'authentischer bulgarischer Musiken' [Authenticity, Mediality, and Identity. Different Ways How to Define and Transform 'Authentic Bulgarian Musics'] (Doctoral Thesis). Bulgarische Bibliothek, vol. 18, Verlag Otto Sagner, Munich / Berlin / Washington D.C. 2013. There have already been two reviews in Bulgarian and English.
European transitions and local traditions in the Balkans. The case of Greek musicology
Evanthia NIKA-SAMPSON (Thessaloniki)
Katy ROMANOU (Nicosia)
Maria ALEXANDRU (Thessaloniki)
Musicology in Greece is a relatively young discipline. However, music philosophy and theory are deeply rooted in the Ancient Greek World and continued to be developed during Middle Ages and up to newer times. Greek Musicology focused during the 20th century on one hand on the study of Greek music in all its expressions, both from a diachronic and systematic point of view, on the other hand it explored Western European traditions and musics of the world, keeping path with older and newer developments in the field and also opening new perspectives in some areas of Musicology worldwide.
Our joint presentation follows the following structure:
1. Topics and trends in Greek Musicology through the mirror of the Crossroads Conference
2. Music of the Balkan Peninsula and the Greeks, through a post-nationalist view (Katy Romanou).
3. Ethnomusicology and Byzantine Musicology in Greece and other countries of the Balkans: an interim report (Maria Alexandru).
One of the main purposes of the IMS Regional Association for the study of music in the Balkans is to promote the research on the different local traditions in South-East Europe and their interactions. Balkan countries share in their musics many common elements. The present report addresses some developments and contemporary major trends in all fields of Music Studies in the Balkans. It focusses on the Proceedings of the Conferences organized by the IMS Regional Association, as well as on some other important scientific events of the last decades in the Balkan countries.
A Cypriot composer at the crossroads of Asia and Europe. Probing Faidros Kavallaris' musical language
Francis-Nectarios GUY (Limassol)
Faidros Kavallaris (1950) is a Greek-Cypriot composer. He studied architecture and music. In the mid 70's he started studying and performing Cyprus traditional music, byzantine ecclesiastical music as well as researching ancient Greek music. Since the early 80's he has started focusing his interests in the European compositional techniques of his days.
He participated in courses and seminars at Centre Acanthes in France in 1983 and 1985 with Luciano Berio and Iannis Xenakis respectively, and at Darmstadt in Germany in 1984, 1986 and 1992. He studied with Yoshihisa Taira at the École Normale and also attended classes with Paul Méfano at the Paris National Conservatory of Music while under scholarship in France (1991-92). Meanwhile from 1984 he also studied the music and wider culture of the East. He lived and researched in India for a year (1984-85), and subsequently for two and a half years in China - mainly at the Central Conservatory - (1987-90) and one year in Japan under "Japan Foundation" fellowship (1990-91). He holds a doctoral degree from the University of Columbia for his dissertation on 'Musike and Ethos in Ancient Greece'.
One of the main research activities of the composer is the exploration of the link between Eastern Mediterranean music traditions and the music of Far East. He probes the correlation of the musical streams originating in the most ancient traditions of the world. As a result of the above scientific research and also his internship with the music of Asia, Kavallaris managed to join the philosophical aspects of the music of ancient Greece, India, China and Japan with the Western European tradition. The epicentre though is always the island of the Cyprus.
The aim of this paper is to discover the influences of the Cypriot composer; present his musical language; analyze the acceptance of the composer's compositional work and research on the island of Cyprus and in Europe; to identify the impact and dissemination of his local and regional culture.
Georgios Ryssios, priest
Ioannis LIAKOS (Ioannina)
This paper attempts to introduce priest Georgios Ryssios as keeper, inerpreter and composer of Chanting Art in the manner that he was taught by great teachers. He, in turn transmitted this knowledge to subsequent generations. We will try to shed light on aspects of his life and his composing work which is largely unknown.
Yildiz Ibrahimova and music that unites
Ivanka VLAEVA (Blagoevgrad)
The history of the Balkans is an example of mixture between different traditions, which need to be explored in contemporary context, because of the new multifarious realizations. They are based historically on experience of many communities, diverse music and culture layers and perceptions that coexist together and interact. The modernized traditions could be seen through the common tendencies as well as in the individual style and accomplishments of musicians with different background.
Thus the focus of this case study is a music practice of Yildiz Ibrahimova who proves herself as a performer with many faces and realizes her projects in different music areas. Among them are jazz, contemporary art and folk music. The vast experience and large knowledge of this singer are good fundament for understanding music peculiarities and similarities in the region of Southeastern Europe. She freely combines styles and technics of different époques, music genres and means in her stage performances.
Yildiz Ibrahimova is a person who connects and unites through music and this is something very important for her. It is a platform that she follows consecutively. Here I search her ideas, experience and achievements and also point out some important examples of her work. The basis of the study is concerts, recordings, and interviews.
Das Problem „Nationales – Universales" in den Diskussionen über den wahren bulgarischen Kirchengesang und über den bulgarischen Musikstil – kulturhistorische Paralellen
Julian KUJUMDZIEV (Plovdiv)
In the first half of the twentieth century, two discussions related to musical culture caught the attention of Bulgarian society. The first of them, initiated in the late nineteenth century, raised the question of creating a Bulgarian style of church music, whose foundations were to be sought either in the monodic psaltic chants or in the melodies designated as "Bolgarskij Rospev". In the second discussion the issue of a Bulgarian style is much more broadly debated as a necessity of an identification marker for the Bulgarian musical composition creativity in the context of European music. The report analyzes the relationship between national and universal from a cultural-historical point of view to the benefit of both discussions, which run in parallel and some of whose participants take part in both.
On the international musicological conference Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: Traditions, influences, identities, Iaşi, 4-7 July 2013. New directions in Romanian musicological research
Laura VASILIU (Iaşi)
Zamfira DĂNILĂ (Iaşi)
Following the conference series coordinated every two years by the Regional Association for the Balkan Countries of the International Musicological Society (IMS), the Department of Theoretical Music Studies of "George Enescu" University of Arts from laşi, Romania, organised the International Musicological Conference on the subject Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: traditions, influences, identities. The purpose of the International Musicological Conference was to bring together Romanian and foreign musicologists and ethnomusicologists, researchers and students with interests in ancient Romanian, Balkan or Eastern-European music to debate topics such as music iconography, Byzantine and folkloric traditions, as well as the music of these regions in modern and contemporary times. The conference was open to all theoretical and methodological means documenting the traditional and contemporary music traditions of the Balkans and Eastern Europe, requiring documentation of the interactions between liturgical, folkloric and academic creation within this multi-cultural space.
Our joint presentation observes the following structure:
1. Topics and trends in Romanian Musicology through the mirror of Musical Romania and the neighbouring cultures: traditions, influences, identities, conference (Laura Vasiliu)
2. Ethnomusicology and Byzantine Musicology in Romania in the last 20 years (Zamfira Dănilă)
As regards Romanian composition, if the 150-year-old trend of assimilating Central and Western- European works, coupled with capitalisation on the national oral tradition led to a similar profile in our musicology, we are now at a turning point where a parallel analysis of the comparable musical cultures in South-Eastern Europe is expected of us. Moreover, we are called upon to unify the research of traditional music and contemporary works, given the diverse postmodern compositional options.
Musical tradition in Albania: Between East and West
Meri KUMBE (Tirana)
The cultural exchanges throughout centuries have contributed to the evolution of musical tradition in Albania by creating and preserving its unique originality and at the same time enriching it with those characteristics that defines it as the music of the Balkans.
The cultural and musical commonalities as well as distinctions between the Albanian music and that of neighbouring countries are numerous and significant. This article aims at presenting the musical tradition in Albania by focusing on two core aspects: the tradition of religious music and the heritage of profane music. It covers a time span that starts from the middle of the XIX century and extends till the beginning of the XXI century. This historical trajectory is characterized by efforts and struggles related to the country's liberation movement, the foundation of Albanian state, the formation of ethnic and cultural identity, the communist totalitarianism and so on. By analyzing concrete paradigms, this article will highlight the commonalities emerged, viewing them from an East – West perspective, and the specificities of musical tradition in Albania from a comparative perspective.
Identity of Bulgarian music abroad: Emigrant music before and after 1990s
Milena BOZHIKOVA (Sofia)
The reflex of identity – be it individual or collective – for Bulgarians has always been a result of the accumulation of complex historical factors, cultural policies torn between officiousness, opportunism and moral integrity, national inferiority complex and traumas, all of which deeply mark the national mentality.
Bulgarian professional music is a later development, it belongs entirely to the 20th century (the first Bulgarian opera was written in 1900 and the first Bulgarian symphony – in 1912, for the needs of amateurs). In the development of professional Bulgarian music three stages can be observed that are determined by complex relationships between individual and collective identity and the way these are structured, as well as ideological doctrines: (1) starting at the beginning of the 20th century until about 1945; (2) 1945 – 1989; (3) from 1989 onwards.
Actually, national identities have acquired sufficient stability as traditions in European music after 90s years that Homi Bhabha is able to create a theory of mixed identities, a new, essentially plural cultural space against which current developments can be assessed. In recent studies Austrian musicologists have likewise discussed the mixing and crossing of cultures in Central Europe.
In Bulgarian Art Music there are two different phases of emigrant work – before and after 90s. In the center of the report we will discuss the question about the identities of two groups of composers: the first, with the major representatives André Boucourechliev and Emile Naoumoff before 1990s, and the second – Bozhidar Spassov, Jasen Vodenitcharov, Boyan Vodenitcharov, Vladimir Panchev after 1990s. Will be discussed the question of the choice of identity - Western European, Balkan, hybrid, and the reasons for it.
Bulgarian professional music, that has a history of just over a century, since its embryonic phase has been of a hybrid nature: from its very formation it has been following a complex cultural geography, has been a process of "crossbreeding and accumulation of spaces" (Gernot Gruber), but has always single-mindedly stating the Bulgarian identity whose main features are the folklore, with all its reflections, and the Orthodoxy. In the periods of migration before and after 1990, the Bulgarian authors find a personal identification marker in preserving the local (native) culture over the influences of the foreign. The recent years prove that the musical processes in our country have continuously found expression in seeking culture dialogue, keeping the positive effects of traditionalism and nativism.
Music for peace, a model of socialization
Mina FENERCIOGLU (Istanbul)
This study discusses a Turkish music education model similar to El Sistema. The Music for Peace (Baris icin Muzik) program, founded in 2005 by an idealist humanitarian in Istanbul, started as a pilot project with accordion and then with flute in ensembles at the Ulubatlı Hasan Primary School where mostly underprivileged children attend. The program gives complimentary music lessons particularly to deprived children, who at the beginning were prone to crime. With music education, the attitudes of the children turn to a positive aspect. The aim of this initiative provides social and cultural awareness, which serves the same mission as the world known El Sistema.
In 2009, the Music for Peace project received Deutsche Bank Urban Age Award, which is a prize presented to enterprises that improve the quality of life in urban environment. Since 2010, the Music for Peace continues the symphonic music education at its own place. In 2011, Music for Peace gained foundation status, and started to accept donations as musical instruments for children who attend the courses. On July 2013, IKSV (Istanbul Culture and Arts Foundation) became the institutional partner of Music for Peace Foundation and in June 2014, the foundation signed up to join El Sistema's global program.
Now in 2015, the foundation has three ensembles: the Music for Peace Orchestra, which consists of two orchestras practicing and performing in different levels; the Music for Peace Chorus, which has joined Istanbul International Polyphonic Choruses Festival; and the recently established Music for Peace Brass Ensemble.
The aspects of European integration of Serbian musicology in the light of the activity of the Regional Association for Balkan Music – experiences, aims and plans
Mirjana VESELINOVIĆ-HOFMAN (Belgrade)
The aspects of the European integration of Serbian musicology are multifaceted and numerous to such an extent that we could say that Serbian musicology is a consistent segment of the European musicological map. That segment has been coordinately shaped through several components: the international character of our musicological journal New Sound which has persevered in its efforts to play a role in a worldwide professional exchange for more than twenty years now; the international musicological conferences which take place every year in Belgrade and other bigger Serbian towns, and whose proceedings have been published and distributed to many musicologically relevant world centres; the publishing activity of the Department of Musicology of the Faculty of Music in Belgrade, the Institute of Musicology of the SASA, the Matica srpska institution, and the Serbian Musicological Society; and then, through the continuous participation of Serbian musicologists in international gatherings, and in European scientific and educational university projects.
Also, our musicologists' membership in international associations has largely contributed to the current European position of Serbian musicology – foremost in the IMS, and its Regional Association for the study of music in the Balkans, and their active participation in the work of these institutions. Thus, in 2008, in the framework of the latter association, a conference was organized in Belgrade, on the subject "Musical Folklore as a Vehicle?". Scholars from the Balkans and from the rest of Europe took part, focusing their investigations on the issues of folklore as a significantly determinative phenomenon for professional music creativity, and this, not only in the culture of the Balkans. The participants presented a variety of topics and the interdisciplinary examination thereof. Besides the treatment of the (ethno-)musicological aspects, these included methodologies based on the perspective of social psychology, political and cultural studies, and aesthetics.
Therefore, the proceedings from the conference, otherwise published before it, the intent of which was to give the participants an opportunity to prepare themselves for the conference debates more thoroughly, offered an important "polyphonic answer to the question of the transmissive function of musical folklore within culture and society".
In the Belgrade conference of our regional association, Serbian (ethno)musicology presented itself through considerations of complex issues of the phenomena of the local and the global cultural/musical identity in the light of folklore as a creative inspiration and sort of medium of communication, but also through reflections on the treatment of indigenous music in various musical genres and practices. Due to that representation within the regional association, Serbian musicology has contributed to the scientific elucidation of the folklore in the Balkans, and folklore as an essential musical phenomenon in general. Therefore, having the opportunity to organize that activity within the IMS in 2008, Serbian musicologists not only increased the European integration of their work, but also made it more visible in a purely formal sense.
I believe that each of the Balkan states which has so far participated in the organization of our regional meetings has analogously important experiences, and therefore, these should be incorporated into our common regional goals, implying not only gatherings aimed at focusing on the music belonging to an organizer's local culture, but deliberate encouragement of Balkan "intersections", and considerations of the theoretical issues, arising from both the similarities and differences among our musical/musicological milieus.
Syllabic components (ананейки и хубавы) in old Russian Chant
Natalia MOSIAGINA (Saint Petersburg)
In The Old Russian Chant, beginning from oldest manuscripts with notation, in versions of some chants we can find syllabic components, which can't form the sensible texts, they are named «anenaiky» («аненайки») and «habuvi» («хабувы»). These syllabic components there are in different singing styles, such as «kontakion singing», «znamenny chant», «bolshoi chant», «demestvenniy chant» and «putevoi chant», and also in early Russian poliphony. Posting into the text various syllabic combinations came from Byzantine church-singing culture, where they are still in use. After reforms of church-singing in 17 century syllabic components were abolished, they have been preserved only in Old Believers tradition. Researchers and tradition's keepers have different views about using and nomination of these kinds of syllabic components.
The process of transition in Eastern Europe and its influence on the music education in the countries on the both sides of the ex-Iron Curtain (examples from Bulgaria, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia)
Nikolay DEMERDZIEV (Vienna)
Music schools are rarely seen as a subject of research or as a topic for international comparison. They are often seen more as a place for free time activities. In some European countries such as Austria and Germany, however, the importance of the music school as educational, social and cultural center has been reevaluated. The different specific characteristics, missions and goals of music schools have been subjects of numerous studies and research projects. The legislative basis and the funding of the existing music school systems (Europe-wide) as well as the institution of the music school in cultural and educational policy are being explored in a number of ongoing dissertations and PhD projects – the conclusions of which may be of interest to international organisations such as the European Music School Union and UNICEF.
The purpose of the current study is to encourage and to boost cooperation worldwide on research related to music schools. A number of interviews have been made with musicians, musicologists and other persons who are representative of the music culture of the involved countries - Bulgaria, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria and Chile. I am, however, considering an extension of this study to Venezuela where the El Sistema project has operated to worldwide acclaim for more than 40 years. Music education can be seen as a means to both individual empowerment and social transformation. The research will review in detail some of the main issues such as targets and claims of what has been achieved – and also provide sound factual information which would help organizations which have to consider budgets and possibly subsidies for future programmes of activity.
The Italo-Albanian Kalimera of the Parco Pollino in Calabria
Oliver GERLACH (Naples)
In Southern Italy we find in several regions a tradition of epic recitation of the Passion in the local dialects. Usually these are Balkan dialects which are mixed with the local Italian dialect, but its ritual recitation is usually called kalimera, because it was sung during the night or in the early morning between Lazarus Saturday and Palm Sunday and included a formal greeting of the auditory. There are even kalimere in Italian dialects, where the language competences of the so-called minority languages have already been lost.
In Southern Italy we find in several regions a tradition of epic recitation of the Passion in the local dialects. Usually these are Balkan dialects which are mixed with the local Italian dialect, but its ritual recitation is usually called kalimera, because it was sung during the night or in the early morning between Lazarus Saturday and Palm Sunday and included a formal greeting of the auditory. There are even kalimere in Italian dialects, where the language competences of the so-called minority languages have already been lost. We would like to present a comparative study of five communities which perform the kalimera in a more or less liturgical context of the Holy Week: Acquaformosa (Firmoza), Lungro (Ungra), Firmo (Ferma), San Basile (Shën Vasili), and Frascineto (Frasnita). The five communities use more or less the same texts which were created by a priest called Jul Variboba during the 17th century, but each village uses different melodies or strophic models, San Basile's recitation is even performed as a multipart song between male and female singers, while the monophonic recitation of the other villages is performed more or less unofficially by female singers. Unfortunately, the Italoalbanian dialect called Arbëresh, registered as world heritage at the UN, is since 2007 on the red list of seriously endangered languages (like Italogreek dialects), despite the fact that the number of active speakers is still considerably higher. We do not know, if these traditions will be continued during the next decades, so we hope that our recordings might help for a later revival of a lost tradition. Concerning the texts, it seems that all of them are taken from Variboba, although some of them are Calabrian and Italian texts, but we would like tp point out how the literary poems have been transformed and adapted to the local tradition. Concerning the melodic models, we would like to describe, what they have in common and what is unique for the tradition of one community.
The propagation of the new method of analytical music notation in the wider Balkan area through the activity of direct students of the three teachers of Patriarchal music school, 1815-1821
Sevi MAZERA (Athens)
The science of Byzantine Musicology has contributed decisively to the international promotion and recognition of the great cultural dimensions of the musical treasure of Eastern Orthodox Church. The unity of the over thousand year old written musical tradition, is historically confirmed and recorded in thousands of musical manuscripts located mainly in libraries in Greece, Mount Athos, Mt. Sina and in the wider Balkan area in general.
The end of the eighteenth and the first two decades of the nineteenth century are considered as a very important period in the history of Psaltic Art. The New Method of analytical notation was the culmination of an effort to simplify the existing writing system. A plurality of about 40 renowned composers (melourgi) worked consecutively in a period of about 150 years, targeting to the preservation of church music via a more detailed method of recording. The new rules of music notation were accepted during the Holy Synod by the Patriarchate Kyrillos the 6th which was attended by the most eminent. The theoretical part of teaching was officially assigned to Chrysanthos, while the teaching of the practical part and the transcription of the entire repertoire of Byzantine and post-Byzantine melopoiia into the new analytical notation, to Gregorios and Chourmouzios respectively.
The present paper will attempt to present a few cases of these students who after their studies travelled from Constantinople to the wider Balkan area. They have a great deal of work to present either as chanters or as teachers at various musical schools. All of them were great and multisided personalities and each in his own way, contributed to the survival of the original patriarchal style via the spreading of the new method of the analytical writing. These well educated musicians acted through a period of intense reforms and political negotiations. The fact that the application of the analytical notation coincided with the first printing of music on paper took away a great deal of burden from the work of the music copiers. As a result, the psaltic repertoire was vastly and widely spread throughout the Eastern Orthodox Church territories right up to our days.
The sticherarion Marc. Gr. II, 118 and the Byzantine musical culture in early-14th-century Thessaloniki
Silvia TESSARI (Padova)
My purpose is to present the first detailed analysis of an early-fourteenth-century paper Sticherarion with Byzantine musical notation ("round notation") which is now kept in the Marciana Library in Venice (Marc. Gr. II, 118, olim Nanianus 174). Like the main part of the Byzantine musical manuscripts of this library, this 366-folia-Sticherarion, well preserved, was never fully studied until now (apart from the brief descriptions found in the catalogues of Giovanni Alvise Mingarelli – Bologna, 1784 – and Elpidio Mioni – 1967), though its importance in the studies of the development of Byzantine music culture is self evident even to a first glance.
In particular, I was able to identify its scribe: the monk Daniel Achradis, responsible of both the Greek text and the neumatic notation. He appears not only a mere copyist, but a melourgos, being the composer of the melody of two stichera here dedicated to Saint Gregory of Akragas (incipit Τὸν τοῦ Κυρίου ζυγόν, written by John Plagitis) and to the saint monk Photius of the monastery Tou Akapniou of Thessaloniki (incipit Ἡ φαιδρὰ τοῦ θεοφόρου μνήμη Φωτίου, written by Dimitrios Beaskos). And it is in the rubric of this last sticheron that Daniel Achradis declares himself, monk and sinner, as the author of the music: μελισθὲν δὲ παρ'ἐμοῦ (f. 159r).
I will provide a first reconstruction of the musical activity of Daniel Achradis (taking as starting point the researches carried on by A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus), and I will then focus my attention on the literary and musical tradition of this two stichera, comparing what we read in the Venetian Sticherarion with other sources.
Melodic formulas, modulations, the so-called Great Signs used, along with the specific choice of repertory anthologized in the whole Sticherarion (partly different from the "Standard Abridged Version") will contribute to point out the main features of the Byzantine music culture in the early-fourteenth-century Thessaloniki (the probable place of origin of our Sticherarion).
I will finally explain other steps in the history of this Sticherarion after its production, thanks to the notes readable at f. I and 366v. It arrived in Crete where it belonged to the library of the famous "Saint Catherine of Sinai" metochion and where it was probably read and annotated.
Finally it aroused the interest of the Venetian patrician Giacomo Nani, governor of the ships of the Venetian fleet in the "Levant" in the years 1757-1759, and of the scholars of his circle. For this reason it became part of the precious collections of manuscripts, coins, statues and reliefs owned by the Nani family at the end of the Eighteenth Century and was donated, together with other 307 Greek manuscripts, to the public Marciana Library in the year 1800.
Presenting Southeast European music of classical antiquity and Early Middle Ages through IMS initiatives: Recent activity
Stefan HARKOV (Shumen)
The presentation will discuss the recent research in the field of Southeast European music in Classical Antiquity and Early Middle Ages. The main emphasis will be placed on nine international conferences during the last four years (2011-2014). Four of that conferences have been supported by the International Musicological Society, in the other five a lot of participants have been IMS members.
West-European, Balkan and Bulgarian religious songs: Influences and interactions
Stefka VENKOVA (Sofia)
The research object of the paper are the religious songs (geistliche Lieder (Germ.), cantiques spirituels (Fr.), canzoni spirituali (It.) in Bulgarian religious practice of the XX century. Religious songs constitute an important part of the musical practice of the Catholic church in Bulgaria and they belong to the practice of the Orthodox Church as well. Some of them have gained broad popularity and have been used as popular school songs, in the school religion classes, and in the activities of the Christian brotherhoods and societies.
The research aim is to investigate the usage of the religious songs in the musical church practice in Bulgaria. The different influences from West-European and Balkan musical tradition and their interactions in Bulgarian religious songs will be of special interest. The base for comparisons and analysis will be collections of Bulgarian religious songs, published in Bulgaria in the 1920s and 1930s.
The investigated topic follows a current tendency for expanding the church music research in Bulgaria on both Orthodox and Catholic traditions. An important aspect of the topic is the issue of the "crossing point" of the Christian cultures of Byzantium and the West Christianity in Bulgarian religious music.
The library as a witness to music history: The case of the Rila musical manuscript housed at the library of Rila monastery
Svetlana KUJUMDZHIEVA (Sofia)
Musical manuscripts currently housed at the library of Rila Monastery, whose number is over 100, present the largest collection of notated manuscripts in Bulgaria and one of the largest musical collections originating from the Balkans held in an European library (not counting musical manuscripts in the libraries of the monasteries on Mount Athos). The collection is particularly valuable because, firstly, it gives a homogeneous picture of development in one of the most dynamic periods in the history of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Balkans, the early National Revival period from the second half of the seventeenth through the late nineteenth century; secondly, the collection contains all the basic types of notated chant books needed to perform worship in all-year round in the Orthodox churches. The Rila musical manuscripts are in Church Slavonic language, bilingual (Greek-Church Slavonic), and in Greek. Most of them are written by Bulgarian writers. They are one of the most prominent symbols of Bulgarian national and cultural identity and also, they are representative for both the relation Bulgaria – the Balkans and the Balkans – Europe.
Music historiography in the context of Balkan Studies
Tatjana MARKOVIĆ (Vienna)
The Balkans/Southeastern Europe have internalized its "position of bridge, crossroads, region condemned to eternal transition" (Todorova) and were designated as "ethnic and cultural crossroads" (Georgieva), "authentic hybrids" (Ballinger), "nesting Orientalisms" (Baki-Hayden) or a "metaphor" (Bjeli, Savi), resulting finally in the newly-established discourse of Balkanism. However, the Balkan Studies, including history, sociology, literature, history of art, and musicology, were mainly focused on national perspectives. It seems that only in the last decades, especially after the "spatial turn," there are certain studies, which shed light on cultural hybridity and meta-national perspective. I would argue for this wider perspective in the studies of music historiography too, in order to avoid the constructed fragmentarization and implied national facets in the research of the multiethnic and multicultural region.
The meta-national perspective in the research of the musical culture of the region would be certainly very helpful, as I would exemplified through the comparative study on Balkan music historiographies, showing Ottoman and Habsburg imperial legacies, but also their own differentia specifica, in some cases aiming to prove national "authenticity".
Georgian political folk and folkloric politics: The relationship of politics and folk music in Georgia
Teona LOMSADZE (Tbilisi)
The subject of my study is the relationship between Georgian folk music and Georgian politics. I aim to ascertain how Georgian folk culture is used in the political sphere, as well as the role of politics in folk music circles.
While working on the issue several manifestations of this relationship became clear: a) Georgian folk music employed during international political meetings and Georgian culture days abroad, in order to make possibility to make an impression on foreign colleagues and attract tourists. b) Georgian folk in political demonstrations and war operations. At this situations listening and singing the pieces based on heroic themes intensifies growth of the people's patriotic spirit and further enhances the feeling of unity. Also, rhythm plays a significant role there. It has a certain function of unification that transforms the individuals into one group; c) Folk songs dedicated to political figures (In the paper I represent this process in Historical perspective). We can realize that once the political persons were objects of praising and kind of cultivation, but in the present life through the declining of their public images or in the conditions of freedom of speech, they are boldly mentioned with irony or even satire; d) Certain musical peculiarities absorbed into Georgian folk music as a result of relationships with neighbor nations. During this kind of relationships some Asian instruments organically established its place in Georgian folklore. The melismatic manner of execution which today is considered as the typical features for the Kartl-Kakheti region singing, had always been the main attribute of the Middle Eastern and Central Asian monodic cultures. e) The political demand of the country, which has a significant influence on the state of folk. A clear examples of this are the massive Soviet-era choruses, which resulted the incursion of the conductor's Institute into the Georgian folklore, singing with the doubled upper voices, the trend of four-parting of the folk samples, creation of folk instrumental orchestras and etc.
To conclude, the reciprocal influence of Georgian folklore and politics is quite big. The original Georgian folklore has a significant role in the country's foreign and domestic policy. On the other hand the political solutions that are in relations with the various issues of this sphere (in particular, the question of its monitoring), determines the course of further development of the Georgian folklore.
Round Table Introduction by the chairman
Tilman SEEBASS (Innsbruck)
A decade ago, the International Musicological Society decided that it was time to intensify its activity and establish Regional Associations for its members. The field had grown and we knew that the custom to organize every five years a world congress was no longer sufficient for establishing and cultivate contacts among its members. Since more frequent congresses on a large scale were for financial reasons not feasible the foundation of Regional Associations would be a good way to overcome the problem because regional travel was affordable. Obviously, the concentration on a particular area would not lead to the event being provincial, because themes and methods would remain diverse enough, and there are always colleagues in other parts of the world who have a special interest in that particular area.
We started with the Regional Association of Musicologists in the Balkan countries. The need was obvious, because musicologist from outside, even from neighboring countries were not aware of the activities of their colleagues and even people within that area had not much contact with each other. In 2006 the colleagues from the region met for the first time; it was in Albania and since then we could meet every other year, because we found each time a host who was willing to organize the event – in Bosnia, Serbia, Greece, and Romania). The organizers of the present congress were willing to give us so many slots that we could accommodate 25 papers. It enables us to take stock and give Bulgaria and the Balkans the place they deserve in IMS. In the final round table of today we shall reflect on what has been achieved, discuss common interests, and plan future activities.
The reflection of social transition in traditional music – a case study of Republic of Macedonia
Velika STOJKOVA-SERAFIMOVSKA (Skopje)
The paper analyzes the changes within the Macedonian vocal tradition during a social transition at national level. This case study to a large extent discusses number of social processes, as the: political situation in Republic of Macedonia in the last 30 years, the internal and the external political events, phenomena and transitional factors, as well as the official cultural policy and its implementation as the largest factor of changes within the Macedonian vocal music in the urban and the institutionalized environments.
By the way of analyzing the social transitional changes in Republic of Macedonia and factors affecting this process, as the staging of the musical folklore or the transition that brings changes and redefining of the national cultural identity, this paper offers a very interesting and logical image of the state of the traditional musical culture on Macedonia. At the contemporary, so-called modern times, the traditional, old folk music is organized, hierarchized, fixed, demarcates, westernize and record as a new form which primarily acquires a completely different function and aesthetics. As a reaction to these processes, the countries of the former Eastern Bloc are to some extent readdressing the traditional values, certainly not signifying by that a rejection of the new ones. Accordingly, new forms of presentation and promotion of the Macedonian folk music appeared in Republic of Macedonia: increased use of the Macedonian musical symbols (as the 7/8 rhythm, the kaval and other traditional instruments, arrangement of famous Macedonian folk songs, etc.), appearance of new music bands pertaining to various styles and profiles that found their music primarily on the Macedonian traditional music, increased interest for studying the Macedonian musical and dance tradition, increased number of local and national festivals and manifestations dedicated to the traditional music, as well as the obviously expanded use of the Macedonian folklore on stage and for political purposes.
However, setting this contemporary interpretation and function of the folk song in a juxtaposition to the social transition and the ensuing social processes reveals that the song preserved its basic function, that is a bearer of a musical, cultural and national identity. The use of the Macedonian traditional music in political and culture-identifying context only substantiates the role of the function and the aesthetic of a folk song as the largest identifier of peoples.
Session: Pars pro toto. Balkan Literatures in Europe / Pars pro toto. Les Balkans littéraires en Europe
Organizers: Roumyana L. STANTCHEVA, Yordanka BIBINA
Eve nouvelle. Observations sur le roman européen moderne de l'entre-deux-guerres
Aglika POPOVA (Sofia)
A l'égard du titre et précédant la période concernée, en 1886 est publié L'Eve future (1886) de Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. Au sujet de ce roman et de La faute de l'abbé Mouret (1875) d'Emile Zola, Robert Couffignal observe la nouvelle approche par rapport aux mythes provenant de la Genèse dans la littérature européenne. Il part des tendances françaises du XIXème siècle afin de désigner le roman comme terrain d'expérimentations hétérogènes avec la parole biblique. La structure du mythe pour le premier couple se présente dé-phasée face à l'empilement des interprétations littéraires. La Création fait partie du paradigme complexe qui s'achève avec l'arrivée du salut et dans cette perspective la figure d'Eve est l'anti-type de la Sainte Vierge – la Nouvelle Eve de l'humanité. Le roman instaure son image modifiée, la Nouvelle Eve cède devant la suggestion pour Eve qui appartient à un futur du soupçon dans la phase du salut.
Le thème opte à marquer, à une étape ultérieure, quelles caractéristiques s'associent à la femme dans les romans inspirés par le récit originel. En comparaison de la littérature française, l'étude situe des œuvres de la littérature roumaine et bulgare où ont lieu des discussions sur l'état de développement qui a manqué les fondements du roman européen (Mihai Ralea) et qui est loin des problématiques de caractère métaphysique (Boyan Penev). Tchavdar Moutafov, Anna Kamenova d'une part et Liviu Rebreanu et Mircea Eliade d'autre, sont l'objet de l'analyse typologique sur les images d'Eve. La lecture croise deux axes dans ce contexte : celle d'Eve qui précipite l'homme dans la mort et celle d'Eve qui est fuyarde. La nouvelle individualité de la femme sur le plan du mythe est encore la piste des réflexions sur les moyens d'expression du roman moderne européen.
European and national in the travelogues of A. G. Matoš
Antoaneta BALCHEVA (Sofia)
The study is an attempt to unravel the multi-layered and contradictory nature of the modernist A. G. Matos, navigated between the vision of a multicultural Europe and the desire for national emancipation. Especially highlighted is the exposed patchwork of "otherness" in his travel notes, leading to painful rediscovery and re-ordering of identities on the level of European and national in his aesthetics.
The specifics of the genre of ballad drama (baladické drama) in Bulgarian and South Slavic drama according to Frank Wollman's comparative typology
Christina BALABANOVA (Sofia)
The paper studies Czech slavicist Frank Wollmann's two books Bulharské drama (Bulgarian Drama, 1928), and Dramatika sovanského jihu (South Slavic Drama, 1930). Neither book has been translated or analysed after 09. 09.1944, the beginning of socialism despite the fact that the first book is a pioneer work on the history of Bulgarian theatre and drama (the National Revival period – the 1920s).
Wollman relates the genre of ballad drama to the vibrant influence of South Slavic epic songs (folk songs) upon the literature of the region. As participant in the Prague Lingustic Circle he supports comparative typological studies as a set-off to the positivistic search for influence and borrowings. He is concerned with «the structure of form and genre » in South Slavic drama to identify and interpret the specifics of its genre.
In his comparative study of South Slavic drama Wollman also turns to the reception of classical European drama to demonstrate how authors from the region transformed its influence. He emphasizes the peculiarity and originality of a cultural and literary area as part of the Balkans; all this ties in his research with the themes of the 2015 South East European Studies Congress in Sofia.
Vassilis Alexakis and Dimitru Tsepeneag – otherness and exile
Darina FELONOVA (Sofia)
The article discloses and analyzes the characteristics of the writings of two authors from the Balkans who have immigrated to France in the 60s and 70s years of the 20th century – Vassilis Alexakis (of Greek origin) and Dumitru Tsepeneag (of Romanian origin). The text traces and outlines the specifics of the reception of their work in the literary life of both France and the abandoned motherland, the critical response they receive and the resulting multicultural and multilingual dialog. Through research of the subjects and the characters represented in the novels of these two authors, and referring to some of their personal commentaries made in interviews and studies, the special social role of migrants and their complicated self-perception are displayed – namely, the ever-present feeling of being always the "other" and the "foreigner" no matter where they are. One of the main themes explored by Alexakis and Tsepeneag is the awareness of the immigrant that he exists between two cultural and ethnical entities, but ultimately is unable to belong fully to neither one of them. This problematic and dual identity further develops the sensation of separateness and otherness that the immigrant experiences in regard to his surroundings.
Travelling as an emanation of separation and acquisition
Fotiny CHRISTAKOUDY (Sofia)
The cosmopolitan travelling of Greek literature begins with the emblematic work of Cavafy „Ithaka". This very poem marks the beginning of an adventure that seeks the escape from one place to another, the discovery of new cities, new harbours and the beauty of nature - a travelling that is interrupted by temporary stops of passionate love and sublime aesthetic delights and which is to become finally one with the big journey to the otherworld. During this period the Greek literary scene accepts tendencies from the development of French poetry that were echoed as well by the contemporary evolution of the country – the capital Athens becomes a megalopolis and a common optimistic spiritual atmosphere dominates in the whole of Europe. However travelling will become the turning point of despair and irreversible loss of the ideal for the so called "generation of the '30s" whose sense of tragic doom will cement the topos of the lost native land in Greek literature. In 1922 Greece parts for good with its territories in Minor Asia – a fact that has been bitterly perceived by a whole range of authours – Seferis, Elytis, Venezis, etc. In his collection of poems "Mythistorima" ("Mythical narrative", 1935) Seferis will question - in a country which is neither ours nor yours what is to be found by our souls bound by force with nonexistent pilgrimages. Speaking with the voice of the collective "we" he will lament over the desacralization of the holy space 'native land', he will mourn over the lack of ideal and the nonexistent pilgrimages will represent the topos of a new profane reality lacking life and eternity. At that time the first manifesto of surrealism has already been published but Seferis himself in 1924 expresses his disapproval of the new literary credo. Nevertheless it is a point of interest that although Seferis doesn't declare himself a follower of surrealism, the technique he uses in writing his first collection of poems "Strophi" (Strophe, 1931) starts to remind us of the surrealist aesthetics. The poetic Renaissance, related to his name, has its root stock on one side in the modern concepts of European literature and on the other side in the literary work of two minor poets – Teodoros Doros and Nikitas Randos who first introduced in Greek poetry writing the subconscious elements not controlled by the logic.
Les politiques culturelles des Balkans et les intégrations européennes
Katica KULAVKOVA (Skopje)
The European topos in the most recent Macedonian novel is accepted as domicile. Young Macedonian authors consider Europe as their home. The fact that they live outside of the European Union or outside the European West, which has long been considered the implicit cultural center of the world, does not make them less European. Originally born in Macedonia, in the former cultural center of Western Europe which already belonged to the periphery, writers such as Goce Smilevski and Olivera Kjorveziroska materialize the "Western European topos" in their works in a seemingly sidelong, but none the less essential manner. They draw attention to the dark side of the Western culture, to the suppressed content that official historiography tends to conceal. They remind us that Europe's spiritual being knows no boundaries and that literature transcends institutional, conceptual and ethical limits. Liberated from the European stigma (fallacious moral, repressed memory, colonial traumas), these Macedonian authors reveal certain parts from the European Shadow (the collective unconscious, the historical archive piled up with black stains). There is no civilization without its dark facet. That is the law of the Light. That is how Europe is, composed of West and East, but also of North and South. It is liminal and intercultural. In its process of assimilating, it becomes assimilated.
The interpretation will be focused on the novels of Goce Smilevski (Razgovor so Spinoza / Conversation with Spinoza, 2002 and Sestrata na Sigmund Frojd / Sigmund Freud's Sister, 2007 / 2010) and Olivera Kjorveziroska (Zakluchenoto telo na Lu / Locked Body of Lue, 2005). It also gives insight of the novels of Kalina Maleska (Bruno i boite / Bruno and the Colors) and Ermis Lafazanovski (Hrapeshko, 2007).
The Siege and Kadare's reconstruction of the Albanian national identity
Jing KE (Beijing)
Kadare, the world famous Albanian writer, is a master of employing historical allusion for actual political purposes. The Castle (1970), for example, tells about Albania's heroism in the 15th century resistance war led by Skanderbeg (1405-68) against the Ottoman expedition, but it actually aimed to applaud the Albanian communist government's policy against the hegemonic US and USSR. In 2008, the novel was published under a new title, The Siege, with significant changes. This paper interprets the messages Kadare attempts to convey by renaming and retouching of the novel. By analyzing the historical backgrounds of the late 1960s and the 21st century and comparing the two versions of the novel, The Castle and The Siege, the paper comes to the conclusion that the changes in the latter vision of the novel aim to reiterate the European identity of the Albanian nation, as he has argued in his booklet The Albanians' European Identity (2006).
Middle European and South-East European modern phenomena
Lilia KIROVA (Sofia)
The aim of the study is to clarify the features of mental and spiritual realities, creating the base to the flowering of the arts in Central and Southeastern Europe in the early 20th century. This author outlines the different value ladder over the centuries, the presence of diverse ethnic and cultural layers and the civilizational models, trying to reveal the quickening aesthetic phenomena and the role of symbolism in the development of literature in our century. Exposed are the main guidelines in the cultural development of the two regions and especially the formulas of radical modernist formation, makes us reflect on the aesthetic and historical consciousness of the artists for the diversity of the spiritual map of Central and Southeastern Europe.
Dangerous book. Observations on the prose by Danilo Kiš, Aleksandar Hemon and Igor Štiks
Liudmila MINDOVA (Sofia)
The text compares three books by South Slavic authors: A Tomb for Boris Davidovic (1976) by Danilo Kiš, The Lasarus Project (2008) by Aleksandar Hemon and Elijah's Chair by Igor Štiks. In different genres all three books analyze possibilities to defend human rights, and particularly the freedom of speech and thought. In these literary worlds Europe exists mainly with its philosophical and cultural history, but also as a place with a very long tradition both in defence and violation of human freedom. Of course, the book as a main symbol of wisdom and thought is the main subject for these books and therefore is not surprising that their writers devote an important space to the dangerous books and knowledge and ask about ethic and poetic borders between permission and prohibition.
Guillaume Apollinaire et Faik Konica. Amitié et collaboration littéraire de caractère européen et balkanique
Luan STAROVA (Skopje)
L' auteur dans ses recherches avec la publication du livre Faïk Konitza et Guillaume - Apollinaire une amitié européenne (éd. établie et présentée, par L. Starova, Paris, l' Ésprit de péninsules, 1998, 240 p. (coll. ,,Balkaniques''), confirme que les échanges entre Apollinaire et Konitza sont loin d' être purement accidentels ou anecdotiques. Le livre que Konitza publie sous les pseudonyme Pyrrhus Bardhyli, L' Essai sur langues naturelles et artificielles(Bruxelles, 1904), pour la première fois fut repris enterieurement dans ce livre.L' auteur y fait suivre les articles qu' Apollinaire et Remy de Gourmont ont consacré au livre de l' érudit albanais. On relève dans les relations de l'écrivain français Apollinaire avec Faik Konitza, écrivain et milittant de la rennaissence culturelle des Albanais d' affinités profondes qu' on ne saurait négliger.
Dans ce travail on va plus loins dans les recherches de l' origine et la nature de leurs rapports. Faik Konitza, sous le psudonyme Phyrus Bardyli, participe dans ,,la bataille d' idées de l'avangarde européene'' au début du XX ième siècle(certains de ses textes écrits dans la revue d' Appolinaire ,,Le Festin d' Esope" sont considerés d' être écrits par Alfred Jarry).
Konitza paticipe aussi à la défance des langues naturelles et artificielles dans une polemique de l' hébdomaidaire parisien ,,L' Éuropéen''en 1903, par Apollinaire et Remy de Gourmont. Apollinaire qui qualifiait son ami albanais de ,,véritable encyclopédie mobile'', ainsi que ,,Voltaire des Balkans'', en même constatit la dualité de la personnalité de Faik Konitza ,résultat, de son ,, esthétisme européen'' ainsi que de son ,, militantisme culturel balkanique''.
The South-Slavic idea, 1904-1912 in the art of the Bulgarian artist Haralampi Tachev
Milena GEORGIEVA (Sofia)
Haralampy Tachev is the most typical representative of the early Secession in Bulgaria. His work is extremely diverse: from the decorative arts to the founding of the first artistic association in Bulgaria—Contemporary Art (1903); from painting and book design to the layout of exhibition pavilions and monumental buildings. As a proponent of South Slavic cultural communication, Tachev was elected First Secretary of the International Union of South Slavic Artists Lada (1904-1912). This paper presents his work as a tenacious promoter and curator of exhibitions in the South Slavic capitals Sofia, Belgrade and Zagreb, as well as his participation in conferences, meetings and contacts with artists. It also analyzes his artistic creativity with South Slavic subjects. Special emphasis is placed on his contribution to the first major cultural events in Sofia: the founding of the Lada Union (1904), the second South Slavic Exhibition (1906) and the Slavic Festival (1910). Furthermore, this paper analyzes the artistic language and poetics of Tachev's works, which were inspired by the South Slavic ideology that was popular at this time. Considered advanced and timely by its supporters among the Balkan intellectuals, this ideology is accepted as European in the sense that it embodies cultural reciprocity, understanding and tolerance, and that it underlines common points in the cultural history of the young South Slavic nations, despite the political confrontation of their National programs for union and expansion. Tachev "dressed up" the South Slavic idea using the visual achievements of the Art Nouveau / Secession style while seeking specific National intonations. The artist is therefore a mediator on many levels—logistically, ideologically, stylistically. This paper is based on a plethora of documents on the Lada Union, preserved almost entirely in Bulgaria, as well as Tachev's personal archives. Although the Bulgarian section of Lada left the union in protest against the Second Balkan War in 1913, Tachev continued his work with the Slavic societies in Sofia, remaining faithful to the idea of equal cultural communication between all Slavic countries.
What is the meaning of the name of the oldest Slavic alphabet Glagolitza at the time of its creation, in the process of its interpretation during the next 12 centuries, and how is it understood in the modern scientific terminology?
Nadejda DRAGOVA (Sofia)
The beginning of this research was published in 1968 in the study "Unexplored Old Bulgarian Acrostic" issued in the journal Language and Literature, kn.3 - 1968.
This lecture set against the existing interpretations of the name Glagolitza, that it is a derivation of the word "speak". Based on documents, we assert that the name of the alphabet of Cyril and Methodius is dedicated to the Holy Trinity.
Contemporary reformations in Slovenian literary field: A generational or a class struggle?
Rok BOZOVIČAR (Belgrade)
The younger generational power and first encounters with the conditions of the (literary) production have probably never before been so much thematised. Recent questioning and debates on a situation of today's younger generation and its position (and role) in a society should encourage a comparison of (capitalist) process and access of younger generation to the (literary) means of production.
What are the barriers of re-configuration of the literary field and what is stopping the possibility of change? To whom does a generation serve? Do we need to be a part of a generation or does a generation needs us more? The occasional tensions between the literary media/platforms (AirBeletrina, LUD Literatura, Radio Študent, Idiot ...) can be undestood as an expression of inner generational conflicts and contradictions. But are they also a class struggle?
This paper aims to present a transitional (post-socialist) situation (conditioned by the neoliberal paradigm) of a younger Slovenian literary scene, which can probably, despite the differences in social and cultural processes, apply to a symbolic and cultural capital of the countries of the former Yugoslavia region and wider. Furthermore, through the analysis of the debates/polemics a literary field can indicate a context of wider social and political changes (part-time jobs, self-employment, precarious work, middle-class transition ... ).
Les affinités entre les littératures européennes
Roumiana L. STANTCHEVA (Sofia)
Quand il est question de littératures européennes, on pense d'habitude aux modèles occidentaux, ayant entrées au long des années, à la liste des phénomènes canoniques, largement reconnus. Dans le champ des débats ouverts par le titre de la session Les littératures Balkaniques en Europe, cette communication cherche à élucider le niveau de représentabilité pour chacune des littératures quand au tout européen. Ressort de même la question : dans une étude comparée des littératures européennes moins connues, risquent-elles de se perdre dans la notion beaucoup trop générale de Littérature européenne, au singulier.
La notion d' « affinité » sera commentée dans ce contexte comme une notion susceptible de remplacer la notion périmée d' « influence », ainsi qu'une autre notion plus récente, mais pas moins problématique, de « réception », qui, toutes les deux, portent toujours en soi l'idée d'une liaison, même si renversée vers l'un ou vers l'autre bout de la relation. La notion d' « affinité » permettra de sortir du cercle vicieux des contacts directs ou indirects. Par contre, l'analyse comparative partira du contexte commun ou divergent, pour juxtaposer les thèmes, les idées, les images, les procédés artistiques.
La réflexion proposée ici cherche ses exemples et met en évidence des convictions nouvelles pendant les années 1920-1930 en Europe et cherche à vérifier l'existence ou l'absence d'affinités idéologiques, thématiques et artistiques entre les littératures européennes, sud-est européennes et occidentales. Notamment pour cette époque, les acquis par la philosophie de l'intuition, par la psychanalyse et par la médecine ; les problèmes démographiques et d'urbanisme ; les problèmes de la modernité et du modernisme dans les arts. Pour ne pas continuer la liste. La démarche consiste à juxtaposer des romans qui s'intéressent à des sujets contemporains à cette époque. Peut-on dépister les thèmes de l'actualité des années 1930 un peu partout en Europe: notamment la grande ville, la femme indépendante, le temps individuel, des thèmes qui correspondent aux nouvelles idées démographiques, psychanalytiques, philosophiques. Les romans de Camil Petrescu, de Yana Yazova et d'André Gide, respectivement de la littérature roumaine, bulgare et française, nous fournirons les exemples.
Session: Theory of the Linguistic Union: Balkan Linguistics and Eurolinguistics/ Théorie de l'union linguistique: linguistique balkanique et eurolinguistique
Organizers: Petya ASSENOVA, Ekaterina TARPOMANOVA
Formulas of the dedicatory inscriptions in the monuments from Slavonic and Greek Byzantine territories as the part of the Balkan tradition in different languages
Alexandra EVDOKIMOVA (Moscow)
In my report I want to show the basic formulas of the epigraphic genre dedicatory inscriptions. What words are usually the heart or the main body of such inscriptions, how they changed depending on the territory and the century. What happened with the classical: "ἀνιστορήθη ναὸς" and "ἀνηγέρθη ἐκ βάθρον". How to use the "διὰ κόπου" and what is "ἔργμασι θ[εσ]πεσίοις" etc. And certainly I want to discuss the question whether the characteristics of the donator or builder were true or simply represented part of formulas.
The main part of my report will be dedicated to the influence of these formulas on Balkan traditions in different languages.
My name is Evdokimova Alexandra. I'm a science assistant in the Institute of linguistic in the Russian academy of the sciences, an author near 50 articles and a member of the "Association Internationale d'Épigraphie Grecque et Latine".
The verbalization of gestural language – perspectives in front of the contrastive research of the Balkan phraseology
Anastasia PETROVA (Veliko Tărnovo)
This paper discusses the opportunities which gesture idioms (Kozerenko, Kreydlin, 1999) present for the contrastive research of Balkan languages. Their semantics is based on the standard forms of expression of the state of mind by projecting intentions and emotions on external manifestations (gestures). The particular ambiguity of the gestural idioms becomes understandable only in semiotic or cultural aspect. This study addresses the variability in the phraseological semantics and the use of gestural idioms in different languages.
Les emprunts lexicaux du néogrec dans la langue roumaine actuelle: le cas des mots expressifs
Anca Mihaela SAPOVICI (Bucarest)
Pendant des siècles le grec a représenté la langue de la culture et de l'administration dans les pays roumains, en renforçant l'unité linguistique balkanique (Sprachbund), au niveau du vocabulaire et de la phraséologie. Le niveau d'influence été tellement marqué aux premiers décennies du XIXe siècle que les gens lettrés avait la tendance de gréciser des mots du français qui, a l'époque, avait commencé d'être utilises dans les discours libre des élites (Ion Ghika cite le cas du verbe poursuivre qui était encadré souvent dans la IVe conjugaison, c'est à dire parmi les verbes d'origine grecque, avec la forme poursuivarisi1). Il y a, pourtant, un grand nombre des mots empruntés du néogrec qui dans la langue roumaine moderne ont subi une dépréciation stylistique marquée, qui les a placées parmi les mots expressifs, ce qui est le cas pour les emprunts du turc, dans toutes les langues balkanique (Kazazis 1972).
1 Ion Ghica, Opere (ed. I.Roman), vol. I, Bucureşti, Editura pentru literatură, 1967.
2 Iorgu Iordan, Stilistica limbii române, București, Editura Științifică, 1975, p. 311.
3 Iorgu Iordan, Stilistica limbii române, București, Editura Științifică, 1975, p. 311.
4 Graur Al., Alte etimologii româneşti, Bucureşti, Editura Academiei R.P.R., 1975, p. 18.
5 Al.Graur, Alte etimologii româneşti, Bucureşti, Editura Academiei R.P.R., 1975, p. 19.
Dans cette catégorie s'inscrivent les mots argotiques, familiers ou bien les mots populaires, qui sont „issues de l'affecte et de la fantaisie" 2, que „la conscience des sujets parlants ne distingue pas les uns des autres, mais qu'elle les pose sur le même plan et qui les traites absolument de la même façon"3. Le sens des mots expressifs est «complément différent du sens originel»4, chose remarquée par Al. Graur qui expliquait ce phénomène par l'impression vive que les mots étrangers produisent sur les parlants qui, étant touchés par «l'aspect étranger des mots», ne donnent pas d'importance au sens même 5.
Aujourd'hui des mots comme aghios (chanson monotone; ronflement), ahtiat (ardent, brûlant, altéré (de), catadicsi (daigner), fandosi (se donner des attitudes), ghiftui (bourrer), ifos (dignité, rang; style; pose), lefter (fauché), mitocan (goujat), magherniţă (masure), nevricale (crise nerveuse), paragină (friche, ruine) sont classés dans le registre familier, sans que la transgression des frontières de cette catégorie leurs soite interdite. Les uns, comme fandosi (faire des simagrées), ifos, simandicos (personnes huppés), tacticos (calme, mesuré, rangé), tărăboi (vacarme, charivari, boucan), peuvent être associés au registre ludique, raison pour laquelle ils sont préférés par la littérature pour les enfants. Il y a des termes qui se
sont inscrits dans une zone obscure du vocabulaire actuel, étant ainsi ressentis comme des termes argotiques. De cette dernière catégorie on peut mentionner des termes comme: aschimodie (laideron), lefter (fauché), matracucă (femme laide et mal habillé; maîtresse), ofticos (qui se chagrine, qui se tourmente facilement), şustă (arrangement (malhonnête) entre deux ou plusieurs personnes), ţaţă (matrone; femme vulgaire) dont il y en a des mots qui se situent a la frontière du langage familier avec celui argotique.
On a cherché, donc, de donner dans cet article, sinon une explication, au moins quelques repères d'interprétation d'un tel phénomène, qui pourrait paraître curieux aux étrangers, mais qui, pourtant, n'est pas du tout singulier dans l'histoire des rapports bilingues internationaux.
Die Anredeumkehr in den Balkansprachen
Birgit IGLA (Sofia)
The phenomenon of ‚inverted' addressing is widely spread in the Balkan languages. Albeit the broad diffusion it has been paid only little attention to by linguistic research, which is probably due to its pragmatic status and the restricted use: intimacy within the domain of family on the one hand, and further, its strict restriction to direct addressing ('vocative'). The two partners involved in a speech act may use the same word of addressing: 'мамо' is the addressing form a child uses when talking to the mother – and the other way round: regardless whether talking to her male or female offspring, the mother, too, addresses him/her as 'мамо', i.e. inverted addressing forms go hand in hand with 'sexneutralisation'.
My contribution is based on Bulgarian language material. Following an inventarisation of the terms (and their respective grammatical forms) under discussion, I will look at the possible origin of inverse addressing, considering both language-internal and external reasons. The diffusion of the phenomenon in the Balkan languages will be viewed together with the question to what degree it is accounted for in lexicography and whether it finds its expression in folklore literature.
Finally, a look at several Romani dialects allows i) for a classification of types of influence, i.e. borrowing items of addressing vs. loan translation, and ii) speculations about the paths of borrowing.
Looking for a linguistic worldview: The concept of 'freedom' and its profiling in Bulgarian and Modern Greek
Christina MARKOU (Komotini)
This paper is devoted to development and functioning of the basic axiological concept of 'freedom' in Bulgarian and Modern Greek. An attempt is made to reconstruct the concept of 'freedom' according to the principles of the cognitive definition (Bartmiński 2007). The investigation of the concept of 'freedom' implies the semantic analysis of the lexeme and it leads to revealing its semantic content and to presenting its cognitive structure.
In order to reconstruct the possibly fullest picture of the concept, entrenched in language and culture, complementary sources of data are used: systemic data as well as textual data. The cross-language variation of the concept sheds light on both the universal basic defining features of 'freedom' and language-coded ethnically specific cultural presuppositions (Javorskaja 2013).
Bartmiński 2007: Bartmiński Jerzy. Językowe podstawy obrazu świata, Lublin: Wydawnictwo UMCS
Wierzbicka 1996: Wierzbicka, A. Semantic. Primes and Universals. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
Javorskaja 2013: Яворская, Г. Европа в украинских текстах (к проблеме вариативности концепта). Etnolingwistyka 25, Lublin, pp. 45-58.
Intensification of the mirative meaning in Bulgarian and Albanian
Ekaterina TARPOMANOVA (Sofia)
Mirative is defined as a sudden ascertainment of facts that evokes the speaker's surprise and thus creates a special emotional state. Mirative forms in Bulgarian and Albanian are also used to express the speaker's positive or negative evaluation of the object of his utterance. As an expressive verbal form mirative is typically used in dialogue and emotional speech where it is often accompanied by lexical items that enhance the mirative meaning or the attitude of the speaker. In many cases they function not only as intensifiers.
A pragmatic approach to Balkan linguistics. Is that possible?
Gustavo-Adolfo LORIA-RIVEL (Iaşi)
In 1829 the Slovenian linguist Jernej Kopitar described for the first time the similarities between Balkan languages. Since then, this phenomenon has attracted the attention and awakened the imagination of scientists, who have tried to explain the origin of this seemingly awkward situation. Why should languages that are not directly related share phonetic, syntactic and other features? Back in 1829, Kopitar supposed that the similarities between Balkan languages should be explained by a common Thracian-Illyrian substrate of all Balkan languages. In 1930 Kristian Sandfeld-Jensen proposed that the common features of Balkan languages are borrowed from Greek, while Georg Renatus Solda (1980) considered that the origin of those similarities should be found in Latin. Finally Alexandru Graur said that the common features of Balkan languages are the result of mutual influence and independent development. As we can see, in the case of the Balkan Sprachbund, just as elsewhere, the different historical-linguistic explanations merged into two main streams: the Substrate Theory and the Language Contact Theory.
Since then, linguists seem to split around these two seemingly opposed visions. Are the common features of Balkan languages the result of a common substrate language or are they the consequence of mutual influence and borrowing through centuries. The point of my paper is that these two visions are not opposed, but complementary. The Substrate-Superstrate relation between two languages is a specific case of linguistic contact, in which a language is gradually replaced by another one after a long period of bilingualism. As a result of this process, the old language may be replaced by the new one. In this case, the old language becomes the substrate of the new one and its influence may be seen mainly in the field of phonetics and syntax and its extent mostly depends on the length of the bilingualism period. However, the language replacement process may be interrupted due to political, economical and sociological factors. In this case, speakers retain their original language after a long period of bilingualism and the superimposed language ceases to exert pressure on the original one. In this situation we may expect a large amount of lexical elements from the previously superimposed language. May that be the case of Albanian? Is the large number of Latin words in Albanian the result of an aborted language replacement process or is it the result of a successful language replacement process, in which Latin (spoken by Romanized Illyrians) is the substrate and Thracian (spoken by the newcomers) the superstrate?
A more open approach not only to language replacement (successful or aborted), but to other phenomena, such as pidginization and multiple etymology, as specific cases of language contact, may contribute to a better understanding of the Balkan Sprachbund. Such language contact cases (including language replacement, borrowings between neighboring languages, pidginization etc.) are not exclusive, but several such phenomena may synchronically and diachronically affect a group of languages in contact.
Sprachbund – a linguistic concept in history and present time
Helmut SCHALLER (Marburg)
Since Nikolaj Trubetzkoy in 1928 introduced the term "Sprachbund" with a look on the Balkan languages in contrast to the term "language family" like Slavic, Romance or German a long lasting discussion about this term and its application to different European and non-European languages was introduced from 1966 onwards. The best known and most discussed application of the concept of "Sprachbund", of course, is the "Balkan-Sprachbund" comprising the majority of South-East European languages, as there are Bulgarian including Macedonian, Serbian and Bosnian, Rumanian with its different representatives in the Balkans, also Albanian and Modern Greek. But there are also other applications of the term "Sprachbund" like the "Donausprachbund" and the "Banat-Sprachbund". Outside the Balkans we find the concepts of a "Lithuanian-Polish Sprachbund" and a "Baltic Sprachbund".
We have to look at an "exterior structure" of a "Sprachbund", that means which languages, belonging to different language families, are there represented and we have to look also at an "interior structure" of a "Sprachbund", that means which common markers are decisive for the languages belonging to a "Sprachbund". It is generally assumed that phonetic, morphological, syntactic and idiomatic structures are decisive, but lexical correspondences are not valid for a language unit.
Finally one has to put the question of the validity of a "Sprachbund-modell". Will it be represented now by a higher level of a "European language Unity" researched by the new linguistic branch "Eurolinguistics" or can one continue with the term "Balkan-Sprachbund"?
Judeo-Spanish texts in Cyrillic script in the turn of 20th century
Iskra DOBREVA (Sofia)
Jewish languages are highly receptive to interference from co-territorial languages. The investigation of Judeo-Spanish (JS) as part of the Balkan Linguistic Area is gaining momentum (Anwera and Montoliou (2004), Friedman and Joseph 2014).
Multigraphism is not unusual for the Balkans, neither for JS: Zachou-Papazachariu (1972).
The studied texts are semi-official letters composed over the first half of the XXth century by Sephardic authors residing in Bulgaria. In absence of standardization, bilinguals are guided by their own pronunciation and intuition.
At phonological level, the reduction of the unstressed vowels is reflected by the replacement of e, a and o by their raised pairs. The texts are valuable source of information to know how JS sounded in the beginning of XXth century in various parts of Bulgarian area, as the reduction, especially e to i, is taken to an extreme in the texts from Eastern Bulgaria.
Other balkanisms detected are the double negation and the use of the coordinative conjunction и 'and' in the sense of the focal verb also.
Anwera, Johann van der and Montoliu, César (2004) "On Judeo-Spanish Conditionals", in Tomić, Olga M. (ed.) Balkan Syntax and Semantics,
John Benjamins, Amsterdam, p. 491- 505;
Friedman, Victor and Joseph, Brian (2014): "Lessons from Judezmo about the Balkan Sprachbund and Contact Linguistics", in: International Journal of the Sociology of Language 226, Jewish Language Contact, p. 3-24;
Zachou-Papazachariu, E. (1972): "Babel balkanique [Histoire politique des alphabets utilisés dans les Balkans]", in Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique Volume 13, Issue 13-2, p. 145-179.
The particle de in BCS, Bulgarian, Greek and Turkish
Kjetil Rå HAUGE (Oslo)
Anna LAZAROVA (Sofia)
Ljiljana ŠARIĆ (Oslo)
Silje Susanne ALVESTAD (Oslo)
The discourse particle de is found in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (with reduplicated forms ded, dede, deder, dere), Bulgarian, Greek, and Turkish, with both common and language-specific functions. This core of common functions is one of the standard criteria for a balkanism, but the picture is complicated by the presence of this particle in languages further north in Europe, namely Slovenian, Russian, and Ukrainian (in the latter with the form di).
For the Slavonic languages, etymological dictionaries assume that the particle is derived from OCS dějati 'to do, act', which provides a motivation for its use with imperatives in BCS, Greek, and Bulgarian: De reci/Πες το, ντε!/Де, не плачи де! Also, a meaning of 'concession, (unwilling) acceptance of the interlocutor's agenda' is found in these three languages: Da imaš kuću, hajde de!/ναι, ντε/да, де.
On the other hand, Bulgarian seems to stand alone with its function of marking an anaphoric specification of a previously mentioned entity: А той, мой Димо де, ... On the south periphery of the Balkan Sprachbund we find dé used with imperatives in conversational Turkish: Dé bir hikâye söyle 'Do tell a story' (Türkiye'de Halk Ağzından Derleme Sözlüğü) as well as an additive/focusing particle dA.
We aim to describe and analyse these and other functions of the particle de, with focus on the four mentioned languages. Empirical material is excerpted both from existing descriptions, corpora, and collections of informal writing harvested from the Internet.
Some attention will also be given to the question of etymology and possible interrelatedness of the particle through overlapping functions in these four languages.
Slavic and Balkan trends in the paradigm of the auxiliary verb to be recorded in the Bulgarian dialects
Luchia ANTONOVA (Sofia)
Dialectal features that mark the realization of the auxiliary verb 'to be', can be traced in the following aspects:
– phonetic differences in the forms of the paradigm that reflect the common phonetic processes in dialects. Characteristic of this type of dialect differences is that they only partially follow distribution of the respective phonetic phenomenon. For example, in the paradigm for present in forms l.p.sin. and 3.p.pl. are observed changes, which are associated with the reflexes of back yer and back nasal vowel: səm, sam, som, sum; sə, sа, sо, su, se etc. Isogloses of the different continuant in that form did not coincide with the isogloses in other positions. These phenomena have Slavic basis and paralels in Slavic languages.
– development of various historical inherited morphonological features are of verbal basis. This type of dialect differences are marked in the form of3.p.sin. est; in the forms for past tenses with bases b'ah-//beh- and bih-; the suppletive forms for future tense with bases bəd-//bid-. These phenomena have paralels in the dialects of Slavonic languages and in some Balkan languages.
– grammatical semantic differences. Grammatical semantic dialect phenomena are related eg. with the advent of existential meaning 'to have, to exist' of the verb . It is noted most often in Bulgarian dialects in Romania. This phenomenon is due to the influence by the Balkan languages. The structures forming complex past tenses with the verb 'to be' and with the verb 'have' are also related to the different aspect of Balkan trends in the development of auxiliary verbs - cf. səm bil, səm biden, imam bideno.
Social roots and linguistic outcomes of contact-induced language change: The case of Slavic-Albanian contact in Mrko(je)vići and Gorana
Maria MOROZOVA (Saint Petersburg)
Aleksandar RUSAKOV (Saint Petersburg)
As Thomason & Kaufman 1988 and others pointed out, contact-induced language change tends to correlate with the social conditions of the contact, including the kind of social relations between the contacting groups, the time duration of their co-existence, one-way vs multilateral bi- or multilingualism of the speakers etc. Furthermore, a glance at the micro level (families and single speakers) discovers various individual patterns of language domination with their respective linguistic outcomes.
In our paper we observe bilingualism scenarios found in the Mrko(je)vići and Gorana community which is located in the highlands above Bar / Tivar (Montenegro). The Slavic-Albanian linguistic convergence (the north-west Gheg dialect of Albanian vs. the local Serbo-Croatian dialect) correlates here with a centuries-long social interaction between Albanians and Slavs (mixed marriages). The area of particular interest is the village of Gorana, with its two parts, Mala and Velja Gorana, the latter remaining a predominantly bilingual ("symbiotic") community till the present day.
In our paper we provide examples of various interference cases in the local Albanian and Slavic, such as vanishing nasalization of vowels in Albanian, common patterns of vowel reduction, specific representation of Albanian affricates and palatal stops; "expansion" of perfect tense; isomorphism of multiple-argument constructions and prepositional phrase structures; changes in the area of "utterance modifiers" etc. We attempt to analyze the "borrowability" of the corresponding structural categories (cf. borrowing hierarchies proposed in Matras 2007) and review the interaction of social variables acting as major determinants of the contact-induced language change.
Loan distributions as evidence of patterns of cultural interaction in the Balkans
Maxim STAMENOV (Sofia)
The theory of the Linguistic Union (Sprachbund) in the case of the Balkans is based on the idea of the long-term contacts and resulting degrees of symbiosis of languages (in shared patterns of grammar and/or vocabulary) that take part in it. During an extended historical period of time the ethnic groups and nations in this geographical region interacted with each other, as well as underwent same or similar patterns of not only linguistic but, more generally, cultural influence – successively from Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman empire, along with several successive waves of 'Europeanization'. The trends and outcomes of these waves of linguistic and concomitant cultural influence were, however quite different in purport and were evaluated in different way in the cultures of the region. In this paper a systematic presentation of the nature of the influence of Ottoman Turkish and its cultural outcomes will be offered. It is widely acknowledged that this influence was long-term and pervasive, and certain vestiges of it are still to be detected 100 years after the Ottoman empire lost its last territories in the Balkan peninsula outside the ones currently in Turkey. After offering a systematic analysis of the distribution of Turkish loans in Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian (taking as a basis Grannes et al. 2002 and Škaljić 1966) some inferences will be made about the nature of the impact and the patterns of its persistence vs. loss during the last 150 years while pointing out possible parallels with Greek (e.g. Kazazis 1972) and Albanian (Boretzky 1976).
Les termes de parenté en bulgare, grec et roumain – entre l'origine relationnelle et la spécialisation discursive
Neda PAVLOVA (Sofia)
Anna LAZAROVA (Sofia)
L'objectif de notre comunication est de présenter quelques valeurs argumentatives des termes de parenté en bulgare, greque et roumain. Il sera notamment question de montrer comment les termes de parenté sont mobilisés en tant que stratégies de politesse et d'argumentation, en association avec d'autres procédés, pour faire partager ou imposer une certaine vision du monde, faire agir l'autre ou le persuader du bien fondé de l'intention communicative à la base de l'acte de langage exécuté. Il faut aussi noter que les perceptions plurielles de la parenté dans les pays des Balkans et les valeurs argumentatives que les termes de parenté semblent porter ne sont pas sans conséquence sur la manière de sa sémiotisation.
Une observation attentive des échanges quotidiens des bulgares, greques et roumains révèle la récurrence des termes de parenté comme брат αδελφός, frate 'frère', сестра, sora 'sœur', чичо, μπάρμπα, nene 'oncle', баба, moaşǎ 'grand-mère', дядо, moş 'grand-père', леля, θεία, mǎtuşǎ 'tante' чедо, παιδί μου 'mon enfant' etc.
Nous décrivons les usages des interpellatifs comme братче /бате, братлe (еn bulgare) αδελφέ (en greque), frate (en roumain) 'mon frère' tels qu'observés dans les parlers socialement situé ou bien мале/леле -мале, Μάνα μου, mamă 'maman' . Au-delà de l'examen de ces interpellatifs dès lors envisageable comme stéréotype stylistique, nous analysons le fonctionnement discursif de ces marqueurs, c'est-à-dire leurs désémantisation associée à une spécialisation dans des emplois non appellatifs, mais relevant d'un codage d'ordre énonciativo-pragmatique, d'une pragmaticalisation, qui permet de les définir comme marqueurs discursifs. Les résultats de cette analyse invitent aussi à voir dans ces interpellatifs l'un des éléments représentatifs d'un mode de communication dirigé vers l'autre qui caractérise les langues dites «interjectives» – plus qu'à des styles sociolinguistiquement définis.
Nous nous appuyons sur un corpus qui est constitué de données orales et écrites.
Mots-clés : marqueur discursif, termes de parenté, pragmaticalisation, variation linguistique,
Balkan linguistics and Eurolinguistics. Objects and methods of research
Petya ASSENOVA (Sofia)
According to the principles of Eurolinguistics the Balkan linguistic union (Sprachbund) forms part of the European linguistic union (SAE) which, in its turn, leads to the rightful claim that Balkan linguistics is part and parcel of Eurolinguistics, the latter tendency has been tentatively establishing itself for the past two decades. This becomes a theoretical justification to compare the objects and methods of research of the two cognate linguistic disciplines.
The similarities between Balkanisms and Europeanisms are exemplified clearly by the fact that both are manifested on the level of syntax and are also pertinent to some grammatical categories. Europeanisms are mostly innovations; Balkanisms are manifested on all language levels but morphological similarities are particularly relevant to the Balkan language union because the existence (or non-existence) of a language union is based on their relevance. Moreover, from among the Balkanisms themselves, there are archaisms of Indo-European heritage.
The linguistic union (Sprachbund), being an areal-typological community, represents an optimal object for the application of areal and typological research methods. The areal continuum of the SAE is far bigger than that of the Balkan Sprachbund. However, the continuum of the Balkan Sprachbund has been accompanied by common historical development, and cultural and linguistic coalescence.
The Balkansprachbund and its challenges. Towards a better understanding and better usage of specific terminology
Sorin PALIGA (Bucharest)
It has been customary to refer to the Balkansprach ('linguistique balkanique', 'Balkan Studies' etc.) and to other terms like thracology, Thracian Studies, substratum influence, Indo-European, Pre-Indo-European, 'Mediterranean', Nostratic (and Nostratic-like hypotheses), and other similar terms. It is not perhaps mere hazard that those implied in the field of southeast European historical and comparative linguistics have used a variable set of terms and, quite often, an unclear terminology or, at least, a debatable terminology.
The term thracology—rare in English, but quite frequent in Bulgaria and Romania—associated or not to other terms related to the Thracian ethnicum and their language or languages. We do remember, as an example, that Ivan Duridanov used the coinage echtthrakisch 'pure Thracian' as opposed to Daco-Moesian or, using the terms common in Romania, Daco-Thracian, Geto-Thracian, Daco-Geto-Thracian, some of them usual in the Romanian scientific studies (which lack a term like 'pure Thracian').
Other terms have been variably used by various authors with various connotations. As another example, Petar Skok, in his remarkable study dedicated to the names of the Adriatic islands, used terms like 'Mediterranean' (mediteranski) or Pre-Indo-European, both quite common in the academic studies published in Italy between the two wars.
What is the common denominator of these terms? Do they meet somewhere? Do they complement each other? Are they interchangeable? We should clarify and, if need be, offer better alternatives to terms like Pre-Indo-European, (Proto-)Indo-European, Nostratic (and Notratic-like theories like Proto-Boreal and Euro-Asiatic), Thracology (and its related bunch of related terms like Daco-Mysian, see above), Balkansprachbund v. thracology etc.
The paper tries to answer these and other similar questions, to better discriminate the terms against each other, and also to clarify some other aspects of southeast European linguistics in the context of the older or recent developments.
The semantic category of admirative in the Macedonian and the Albanian language
Veselinka LABROSKA (Skopje)
The goal of this article is to compare the grammatical means which are used when expressing admirative, i.e. mënyra habitore in the Albanian and Macedonian languages, when analysed in the context of its functionalities in the balkans language league and its ongoing interference with the languages in these areas. The admirative as a semantic category has a developed system of four tenses of expression in the Albanian language (koha e tashme, koha e pakryer, koha e kryer, koha më se e kryer), while in the Macedonian language it is mainly expressed through sum-perfect as well as da-construction of perfective verbs in present tense. The similarities and differences of these two languages when viewed from a morphological perspective will be the subject of discussion and analysis in this article.
Keywords: admirative, semantic category, mënyra habitore, sum-perfect, da-constructions of perfective verbs in present tense.
Romance borrowings in the Glagolitic sources of the island Krk from the 11th–16th centuries
Viacheslav KOZAK (Moscow)
The paper deals with the language (social, ethnic, cultural) contact between the Slavic and the Romance population on the island Krk in the VIIth–XVIIIth centuries and its reflection in the lexicon of the Glagolitic sources from the XIth–XVIIIth centuries which include juridical documents (Vrbnički statut, Listina slavnoga Dragoslava) and inscriptions (beginning with the earliest, for example, the famous Bašćanska ploča and Krčki natpis). It presents the inventory of the Latin and Romance borrowings and its thematic distribution. The thematic distribution shows that the juridical, administrave, economic and confessional circumstances were the basis for the interaction of all groups of population. It is testified by the Romance borrowings in the Glagolitic sources — juridical (dotati 'subsidize', provati 'prove', ištrumenat 'official document', fondament 'fund', sentencivati 'to pass a sentence', kaštigati 'punish', etc.), administrative (providur 'Venetian governor', kancilir 'chancellor', komun 'community', etc.), econimic (bagatin, beč, dukat, libra, soldin 'types of money', etc.) and ecclesiastical terms (opat 'abbot', plovan 'senior priest', krizma 'chrism', kapela 'chapel', etc.). The research is being supported by the Russian Scientific Foundation (project "Between separation and symbiosis: the languages and cultures of South-Eastern Europe in contact", Nr. 14-18-01405).
Les masses bogomiles, le bilinguisme bulgaro-roumain et la modernisation de la langue bulgare
Vladimir ILIESCU (Aix-la-Chapelle)
Pendant le Moyen Âge (IXe – XIVe siècles) la Bulgarie a connu beaucoup de sectes hérétiques, plus nombreuses qu'ailleurs, toutes originaires de l'Orient, dont le bogomilisme a eu le plus grand succès et a contribué à la transformation de la langue bulgare.
Comme toutes les langues slaves - à l'exception du macédonien, aussi un dialecte bulgare proclamé langue par motifs politiques - le bulgare était une langue synthétique, devenue analytique par la perte de la flexion nominale, pendant l'époque diachronique moyenne (XIIe – XIVe siècles) de son histoire. La majorité des bogomiles étaient des analphabètes, contestataires de toute règle et loi, inclusivement les règles de la grammaire.
Un second facteur qui a contribué à la simplification et/ou à la modernisation du bulgare a était le bilinguisme bulgaro-roumain. Jusqu'à la première guerre mondiale une grande partie des Bulgares parlait roumain. Une indication et en même temps une preuve en est l'article postposé du bulgare, emprunté au roumain.
Die Slavophonen Albaniens und die Balkanlinguistik
Xhelal YLLI (Tirana)
Anders als die Eurolinguistik stellt die Untersuchung der Balkanismen in der Sprache von Minderheiten der jeweiligen Sprachgebiete der Balkansprachen eine weitere Vertiefung der Bestrebungen der Balkanlinguistik der letzten Jahrzehnte, die kleinen Einheiten, d.h. die Mundarten der Balkansprachen vielseitig durchzuleuchten, dar.
Natürlich birgt die Beschränkung auf kleinräumige Untersuchungen die Gefahr sich auf „Kleinigkeiten" festzufahren, aber die Minderheiten- und ihre unmittelbar benachbarten Gebiete sind die Einzigen, die noch heutzutage als „Laborumgebungen" der jeweiligen Sprachkontakte, bzw. der Zwei- oder Mehrsprachigkeit betrachtet werden könnten.
Die Slavophonen Albaniens weisen eine unterschiedliche Geschichte, unterschiedliche Zusammensetzung bzw. Vermischungsniveaus (Südslaven; Südslaven und slavisierte Albanern/Aromunen; Südslaven und Albaner usw.), unterschiedliche Verbindung bzw. -intensität mit den nächsten Muttersprachenmundarten, unterschiedliches Inventar der Balkanismen, unterschiedlichen Einfluss des Albanischen, unterschiedlichen Status usw. auf. Am Beispiel des Artikels werden in diesem kurzen Vortrag durch Vergleich der Angaben dieser Gebiete einige vereinzelte Elemente der obigen Problematik durchleuchtet.
Préverbation: De l'expression spatiale aux valeurs aspectuelles (approche à visée typologique)
Zlatka GUENTCHEVA (Paris)
Eleni VALMA (Institut Catholique de Lille - LACITO)
Le phénomène de la préverbation est un mécanisme com plexe de compositionnalité qui s'opère à l'interface entre morphologie, sémantique et syntaxe. Entraînant des modifications plus ou moins importantes de la signification lexicale du verbe simple avec lequel le préverbe se compose, la préverbation est généralement associée à l'aspectualité et plus spécifiquement aux modes d'action (Aktionsarten) et sert souvent d'exemples pour illustrer le phénomène de grammaticalisation à travers la diversité des langues. De même, le préverbe modifie en tant que constructeur d'un prédicat complexe, les propriétés syntaxiques du verbe composé. De plus, chaque préverbe est susceptible d'apporter, à la suite des relations diachroniques et synchroniques qu'il entretient avec la préposition dont il est issu, une information d'ordre spatial ou d'ordre temporel et d'avoir ainsi une incidence sur le sémantisme de la relation spatio-temporel exprimée.
Dans cette communication, nous nous proposons d'analyser la façon dont la représentation sémantique d'une préposition s'intègre par le biais du préverbe correspondant, en bulgare et en grec moderne, dans le schème sémantique des verbes de déplacement. Nous examinerons ainsi l'information spatio-temporelle encodée par le préverbe, ainsi que le rôle de ce dernier dans l'expression des relations spatio-temporelles lorsqu'il se trouve en cooccurrence avec un syntagme nominal prépositionnel. Nous comparerons ainsi des lexèmes verbaux qui, en bulgare et en grec moderne, expriment le déplacement dans l'espace. Nous mettrons en évidence le lien entre l'origine spatiale de quelques préverbes, les valeurs aspectuelles qu'ils assument et les contraintes syntaxiques de sélection d'arguments :
(1) a. Ptičkite otletjaxa nanajakăde 'Les oiseaux se sont envolés quelque part.'
b. Ptičkite izletjaxa ot gnezdoto 'Les oiseaux se sont envolés du nid.'
(2) a. Armijata preminava prez Bălgarija 'L'armée traverse la Bulgarie.'
b. Toj nadmina drugarite si 'Il a devancé ses camarades.'
(3) Deteto dopălzja v gradinata 'L'enfant a atteint le jardin en rampant."
(4) Kateveno sto stathmo 'Je descends à la gare.'
(8) To karavi apoplei apo to limani 'Le bateau quitte le port.'
(9) Ena fidhi ksetripose apo tis petres 'Un serpent est sorti entre les pierres.'
(10) I igrasia dhen dhaperna to boufan mou 'L'humidité ne transperce pas mon blouson'
Cette analyse sera menée dans le cadre de la théorie des 'lieux abstraits', avec les notions d'intérieur, d'extérieur et de frontière, et nous ferons appel également à la notion de frontière épaisse [Desclés 1990, 2001]. En effet, l'analyse des valeurs sémantiques véhiculées par les prépositions, les préverbes et les verbes de déplacement, fait apparaître la nécessité de développer une quasi-topologie [Desclés 2008; Desclés & Guentchéva 2010], plus flexible que la topologie classique [Talmy 1975, 1983; Langacker 1987; Pustejovsky 2009]. Nous montrerons ainsi que le recours à la notion de frontière épaisse permet de fournir une analyse unifiée de différents emplois des préverbes (spatial, temporel ou abstrait) et de rendre compte de différentes phases de la réalisation d'un processus accompli ou d'un processus achevé.
Anastasiadi-Simeonidi A., 1986. Η νεολογία στην κοινή νεοελληνική. Θεζζαλονίκη: Επιζηημονική Επεηηρίδα ηης Φιλοζοθικής Στολής ηοσ ΑΠΘ 65.
Desclés J.-P., 2001. Prépositions spatiales, relateurs et préverbes. In: Studia Kognitywne – Etudes Cognitives 4, SOW, Warszawa, p.13-30.
Desclés J.-P., & Guentchéva Z., 2010. Quasi-Topological Representations (QTR) of spatial places and spatio-temporal movements in Natural Languages -- In : Space in Language, Proceeedings of the Pisa International Conference / M. Giovanna, A. Lenci, L. Meini, F. Rovali (eds) -- 2010, p. 213-233. -- [Pisa International Conference]
Guentchéva Z., 2002. On the semantics and functions of Bulgarian prefixes, Balkanistika 15. p. 193-216.
— 2005. A propos de la compositionnalité et du fonctionnement de la préverbation dans le domaine slave, in P. Dendale (eds), Le mouvement dans la langue et la métalangue, Col. Recherches Linguistiques de l'Université de Metz. p. 217-240.
Ivanova, K., 1974. Načini na glagolnoto dejstvie v săvremennija băgarski knižoven ezik. Sofia : Izdatelstvo na Bălgarskata Akademija na Naukite.
Jackendoff R., 1990. Semantics Structures. Cambridge (Mass). MIT Press.
Langacker R., 1987. Foundation of Cognitive Grammar, vol.1. Standford University Press.
Pustejovsky J., 2009. Linguistic Ontology of Time and Space, Special Track. In: Ontologies and Computational Linguistic, Flairs 22, Sanibel.
Ralli A. & Dimela E., 2010. Η πορεία προς ηην προθημαηοποίηζη: διατρονικά δεδομένα από ηην ελληνική και ηη διαλεκηική ηης ποικιλία. In : Studies in Greek Linguistics, Thessaloniki : ΙΝΣ. p.516-528.
Talmy L., 1983. How Language structures Space, Spatial Orientation: theory, research and application. In H.Pick, L. Acredolo (eds), Plenum Press.
Tsangalidis A. & Valma E., 2010. Space, time and aspect: the Greek prefix apo-. Interational Conference STALDAC 2010, Cambridge University.
Sur la typologie de l'union linguistique balkanique: La deixis balkanique
Тatiana CIVJAN (Moscou)
Доклад продолжает работы автора по грамматической структуре балканского языкового союза (БЯС) и (в последнее время) по балканскому дейксису. Если брать за точку отсчета коммуникативные цели как стимул к образованию БЯС, то дейктические элементы и конструкции в этом ракурсе будут каркасом грамматики БЯС на парадигматическом и синтагматическом уровне. Ich – hier – jetzt К. Бюлера определяет самоидентификацию индивида и его диалог с du или sie, т.е. начало/основу коммуникативного акта. В современной когнитивистике, где дейксису отводится весьма важное место, главное внимание уделяется синтагматикt, т.е. разбору конкретной ситуации, текста, предложения. Соответственно «протагонистами» становятся партикулы (в современном понимании термина), «дейктические частицы», которые разъясняют ситуацию, определяя персонажей, их взаимную ориентацию. Но партикулы приходят в синтагматику из парадигматики! и в этом отношении балканские языки выработали чрезвычайно интересную и разветвленную дейктическую систему, захватывающую и формальный, и семантический уровень. Тенденция к аналитизму в именной и глагольной парадигме, развитие системы артиклей, местоименная реприза и т.п., да, собственно, почти весь основной список балканизмов так или иначе включает партикулы. И если мы остаемся в рамках БЯС (в диахронии и синхронии), то не стоит ли рассматривать дейктическую систему БЯС как некий над-балканизм – со всеми вытекающими отсюда следствиями?
Session: South Entrance: The Chinese and Russian Foreign Direct Investments in Europe Coming from South and South-East. Economic and Geopolitical Aspects/ Entrée Sud: Les Investissements directs étrangers chinois et russes en Europe du Sud et du Sud-Est. Aspects économiques et géopolitiques
Organizers: Xavier RICHET, Julien VERCUELI
China – CEE Economic and Trade Forum: Geopolitical ramifications for the European Union
Antonina HABOVA (Sofia)
China – Central and Eastern European Countries Economic and Trade Forum launched by China in 2012 is an integral element of the strategic game of China on the international chessboard. It is a component of a complex, long-term strategy encompassing also the Silk Road Economic Belt Initiative, the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, China – Pakistan Economic Corridor and the Bangladesh – China - India - Myanmar Economic Corridor. The implementation of this strategy will help China enhance its economic integration with countries to its west and will ensure greater access to Western Europe.
As China becomes stronger economically, its self-confidence is growing, its interests become increasingly global and diverse and its foreign policy more assertive. Chinese geopolitical presence is getting increasingly tangible bringing about significant challenges for the major actors on the global scene.
Chinese activity in Central and Eastern Europe is particularly challenging for the European Union. The European Union, faced with the question of the future of the European project, with internal dilemmas and various external challenges, was surprisingly firm and critical towards the China-CEE Economic and Trade Forum that includes 11 EU member states. The initiative was assessed as an assault on the EU unity and part of the Chinese plan for the expansion of its influence in Europe.
Against the background of the dramatic changes in the international system and the evolving new geopolitical contest for influence in the world, it is of particular importance for the European Union, however, to turn China's dynamism in Europe into a mutually beneficial partnership. In order to succeed, the EU has to prove first its ability to act as a true global actor.
China's new policy towards Balkan region: New objective, new instruments
Zuokui LIU (Beijing)
Traditionally, in the past twenty or thirty years, China's major objective in Balkan region is to promote the trade and investment and its behavior lacked comprehensive designs or instruments. However, since the launch of the China CEE pragmatic cooperation in 2012, especially the Bucharest Summit in 2013 and Belgrade Summit in 2014, China inputs the Balkan region new strategic contents and objective: turn this potential trade partners to an important pivot or strategic bridge of "One Belt One Road" Intitative from China to Europe. Within the China CEECs Cooperation Framework, China not only inputs a series of instruments to boost the comprehensive cooperations with Balkan countries, but also takes this cooperation as the indispensible part and engine of China EU strategic cooperation. China attached highly importance to the crisis and risks happened in Balkan regions such as Greek Debt Crisis and some untraditional threats, and has taken and will take measures jointly with Balkan countries to deal with them. During this cooperation, China and Balkan countries will have to face with the EU's attitude and find more cooperative space with or without the EU's support.
Russia's gas geopolitics in the Balkans
Plamen DIMITROV (Sofia)
This report analyses Russia's projects for gas deliveries to and transit via the Balkans in the second decade of the 21st century. Its focal point is going to be the history of the South Stream project: its structuring, promotion and subsequent acceptance by the Balkan countries, and the reasons for its failure. Special attention will be given to the proposition that the Balkans are turning into a combat field of the first important confrontation between Gazprom and the European Commission in relation to the observance of the EU's energy legislation. Russia's defeat in that confrontation has become a turning point in its gas geopolitics.
Attention will be also given to the complicated dilemma which the political elites of the Balkan states are facing now, i.e. – to obey the rules and the pressure of the EU or to get involved into a multi-billion Russian project.
The report shall also analyse the relations between Russia and Turkey in the field of the gas trade, the role of the Blue Stream gas pipeline and the possibility for Turkey to turn into and alternative for Russian gas deliveries via Bulgaria.
It will endeavor to answer the question whether Russia has been trying to influence Balkan states' geopolitical orientation by means of the joint gas projects or whether Moscow's objective is purely economic: to sell to Europe bigger quantities of gas and at the highest possible prices.
Session: Historiography and Public Uses of History in the Context of the European Integration of the South-East European Countries / Historiographies et usages publics de l'histoire dans le contexte de l'intégration européenne des pays du Sud-Est européen
Organizers: Blagovest NJAGULOV, Constantin IORDAN
The memory of the Second World War in post-communist Romania
Aneta MIHAYLOVA (Sofia)
The fall of communism in Eastern Europe gave rise to significant changes also in historiography. Topics that have been carefully covered by ideological silence for decades were brought up to public attention, historical events and whole historical periods became subject of revision and reassessment. In Romania in the immediate aftermath of 1989 much attention was paid to the interwar period that was being viewed as the heyday of Romanian society before the dawning of the dark times of communism. Extensive historical research was conducted also on the history of the most recent past, the period of communism.
Against this background, initially the period of the Second World War remained somehow aside of the interest of historians and the general public. However, by the first decade of the 21st century it already attracted much historian's attention and became the subject of heated public debate. Two intertwined issues related to that period were at the focus of the debate - the personality of the wartime Romanian leader general Ion Antonescu and the topic of the Holocaust. The assessment of Antonescu ranged from a "national hero" to a "murderer" depending on the role he was assigned in the destruction of the Romanian Jews during the war. In 2003 was established an international commission headed by the Romanian-born Jewish-American professor Elie Wiesel to study the issue of the Holocaust in Romania, which presented its report to the Romanian President in November 2004. The report was extensive and the conclusions were clear-cut, yet the debate on this issue in Romanian society was not over.
I will try to present the emergence of this debate and the discussions in the last two decades both in Romanian historiography and the Romanian society in general on issues related to the period of the Second World War that have long been passed over in silence or misinterpreted, focusing mainly on the personality of general Ion Antonescu and the topic of the Holocaust.
La violence illégitime dans l'histoire de la Dobroudja. Discours historiographiques, mémoires collectives et usages publics en Bulgarie et en Roumanie
Blagovest NJAGULOV (Sofia)
Le préambule du traité établissant une Constitution pour l'Europe (2004) fait appel à la volonté des peuples européens de dépasser leurs anciennes divisions pour forger leur destin commun, tout en restant fiers de leur identité et de leur histoire nationales. Comment dans ce contexte la Bulgarie et la Roumanie, anciens voisins et membres récents de l'Union Européenne (depuis 2007), ont fait et font face aux défits des pages sombres dans leur histoire commune? Il s'agit plus précisément de la violence illégitime en Dobroudja, une région frontalière, contestée par les deux pays jusqu'en 1940.
À la différence de la violence légitime dont le monopole est tenu par le pouvoir politique, la violence illégitime à l'égard ou au sein de la société peut prendre des formes plus variées. La communication présente en brève et annalyse quelques actes de violence au cours de deux periodes traumatiques dans l'histoire bulgaro-roumaine de la Dobroudja. La période de la Première guerre mondiale comprend l'enlèvement de population civile de la Dobroudja du Sud (le Quadrilatère roumain) et son déplacement dans des camps de travail forcé en Moldavie roumaine en août 1916, ainsi que les actes de violence á l'égard de la population civile commis par les armées d'occupation en Dobroudja du Nord de 1916 á 1918. Les cas de violence pendant la période entre la Première et la Seconde Guerre mondiale se réfèrent aux actions des "comitadjis" bulgares dans le Quadrilatère (des bandes d'orientation nationaliste ou communiste est en lutte contre le pouvoir roumain) et des organisations nationalistes roumaines, aux rapports entre la population locale et les colons Aroumains, aux pogroms contre la population civile commis par la gendarmerie roumaine. On compare les modes de présentation et d'interprétation de ces actes de violence dans l'histoire de la Dobroudja en Bulgarie et en Roumanie au cours de leur intégration européenne compte tenu des ouvrages historiques, de la mémoire collective et des usages publics du passé. La question principale est de savoir si les approches ethnocentristes continuent á dominer dans les discours sur la violence lors d'une histoire partagée.
Les événements de Bulgarie du 9 juin 1923 vus par les historiens bulgares: Les travaux généraux
Constantin IORDAN (Bucarest)
L'auteur se propose de faire une analyse de la manière et des motivations dans lesquelles les historiens bulgares de la période d'après la Première Guerre Mondiale ont qualifié les événements de Bulgarie du 9 juin 1923 puisqu'il y a des différences et des nuances parfois sensibles. La communication met en évidence certaines raisons d'ordre politique.
A historiographical challenge: Naturalization in the old Romanian kingdom, 1881-1914
Daniel CAIN (Bucharest)
In the summer of 1878, the Great Powers conditioned the recognition of Romania's independence on the change of the 1866 Constitution, according to which only Christian foreigners could be naturalized. Parliamentary disputes and diplomatic pressures resulted in a compromise solution: naturalization was granted on a strictly individual basis by a vote in Parliament. A more permissive form of this parliamentary solution could also be found in the Principality of Bulgaria. Granting rights and liberties from which foreigners could not benefit in their own country was deemed dangerous by Romanian politicians. This restrictive policy mainly targeted the Jews settled in Romania, though it also included many applicants coming from the Balkan world. This reality is often neglected by Romanian historiography.
La longue ombre du passé: La culture de la mémoire en Bulgarie actuelle à propos de la déportation des Juifs de territoires administrés en 1943
Nadia DANOVA (Sofia)
La communication se propose d'analyser les problèmes de la « culture de la mémoire » concernant une page néfaste de l'histoire bulgare – la déportation des Juifs de territoires administrés par la Bulgarie en 1943. L'effort de décrire le large éventail de formes informelles et institutionnalisées de la mémoire s'adresse à la constellation hétérogène de mémoire des différents groupes et des lieux de mémoire, qui est le résultat de l'intéraction au niveau macro et micro du fonctionnement de la mémoire des groupes. En s'attachant à saisir l'intéraction entre la mémoire publique, oficielle et la mémoire privée on s'adresse tout d'abord aux thèses des historiens bulgares sur le problème. On examine ensuite le rôle de l'institution scolaire et la présentation du thème dans les manuels scolaires et on tourne le regard vers les lieux de mémoire publique - les plaques commémoratives et les expositions dans les musées. On s'appuie aux interviews des ethnologues et on présente la production cinématographique, la presse périodique et la littérature bulgare se rapportant au thème de la déportation des Juifs. On constate enfin l'existence d'une mémoire divisée à propos de la responsabilité de la déportation. Le savoir sur cette «ombre longue du passé » aidera à connaître mieux la société bulgare et contribuera à son pénible mûrissement. Le récit historique pourrait jouer le rôle d'une rémémoration, d'un avertissement des fautes commises dans le passé et d'un appel permanent pour leur non-oublie, qui signifie leur non-répétition.
Historical memory and public agenda: For certain uses of the past in terms of transition
Nikolay POPPETROV (Sofia)
The report examines the relationship between the memory of the past and the current social agenda asked by politicians and the media. In terms of transition there are real causes for the increased interest of the past. The transition is challenging the identity of the individual and creates new identities. The notion of the past becomes a powerful political weapon. However, between the public agenda and memory exists a complex dependency. Public agenda is using separate elements of remembrance, isolate them, remodel them and then present them to the public as its (of the society) memory and images of the past.
In the years of transition is done purposefully process of reinterpretation of the history: exploring unexplored events, trends and biographies; deconstructing political myths; revealing forgeries. Parallel to this process occurs, however, the process of creating new myths and new characters. The past becomes a source for argumentation of political behavior and for explanation the current state of society, economy, state. Especially strongly intensified is the interest of the past when you have to carry out political identification, when is needed to stigmatize the opponent or emphasize the correctness of some political behavior.
The battle for memory covers not only the stories of the past but also the places of memory. In the most extreme forms it reaches the construction of a new past. This is very clearly seen in the biographical stories. The current agenda also focuses on creating new, one-sided stories about the past. They have markedly mobilizing function, highlight the theme of Europe-centrist orientation of Bulgarian society even in the years of the extreme nationalism.
The cult of Saint Dimitrij Basarbovski in the context of public usages of history in Bulgarian and Romanian peoples
Radoslav SPASOV (Sofia)
Saint Dimitrij is a little known Bulgarian saint who is also considered to be the patron saint of the Romanian capital Bucharest, which makes him a natural religious, cultural, and historical unifier of the two Balkan peoples. Interest towards his life and work was first kindled during the era of the Bulgarian National Revival. It is still hotly debated in scholarly circles when exactly he lived.
The first notes on the life of the Reverend Dimitrij come from the notable writer of the Bulgarian National Revival, Saint Paisius of Hilendar (Paìsiy Hilendàrski) in his groundbreaking "Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya" written in 1762. In 1774 the Russian General Ivan Saltikov (the Russian–Turkish War of 1768 to 1774) ordered that the holy relics of Saint Dimitrij be taken to Russia. The Bulgarian Dimitar Hadži, who served under the General as his interpreter, asked the General to leave the relics in Romania as a compensation for the heavy losses that the country had suffered during the war. Since then the holy relics of Saint Dimitij have rested in Bucharest. The Holy Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church took a decision that Saint Dimitrij be celebrated in all churches throughout the country. The first country-wide celebration took place on 27 October 1955. The divine service brought together the Romanian Patriarch Justinian and the Bulgarian Patriarch Kiril.
Saint Dimitrij Basarbovski has united Bulgarians and Romanians culturally and religiously from the time of National Revival to the present day. His holy relics have been preserved and are kept at the Patriarchal Cathedral "St. St. Konstantin and Elena" in the Romanian capital, where he is honoured and commemorated as its patron and protector. On 27 October 2005 at the request of the Bulgarian Patriarch Maxim, the Romanian Patriarch Teoctist donated a marvelous gift to the Basarbovo Monastery – an icon with the image of Saint Dimitrij with small pieces from his holy relics interwoven into the texture of the painting. The holy cloister near Basarbovo keeps the memory of the saint alive and welcomes thousands of worshipers from both sides of the river Danube who seek help and hope forever and ever.
To the archives exchange between Bulgaria and Romania – past, present, perspectives
Rositsa MARKOVA (Sofia)
This survey is dedicated to the problems of Bulgarian and Romanian collaboration in the sphere of the archival heritage in both countries. It traces the first publications of important for Bulgarian historiography documents and historical sources, mainly found in the Romanian archives.
This activity has begun in the late 19th century. The survey brings to mind the very popular and important editions about Bulgarian past and revealing documents, kept in Romania. It is well known that Romania has the opportunity to offer more sources to the Bulgarian researchers as compared to what Bulgarian archives could ever offer to their colleagues north of the river Danube. Thus one of the accents of this paper is the formation of the unique collection of microfilms of documents about Bulgarian history in the Bulgarian Central State Archive from the Romanian State Archives. These microfilms have been obtained under the official exchange between the two countries in the 20th century as part of the cultural and scientific collaboration. It has begun in 1965 and the two countries are still negotiating on what more could be done.
The aim of the author is to present the documents collection policy of the institutions, related to the exchange between the two neighboring countries and the problems of records collection nowadays, which the researchers and institutions are still facing.
National nihilism vs. proletarian internationalism. Uses of the Stalin's national model in Bulgarian historiography (from 1944 to early 1960s) and its overcoming
Rumyana CHUKOVA (Sofia)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of the historical concepts and assessments in Bulgarian historiography after the Soviet occupation on September 9, 1944. The forcible change of the political model in the country challenged the previous liberal historiographical traditions and required the use of a new methodological scientific apparatus. One of the pillars of this theoretical change was the incorporation of the Soviet (Stalinist) model of nation and state as a theoretical basis in the works of Bulgarian historians. A direct result of the perception of the experience of the "Soviet comrades" was the cultivation of national nihilism in the name of socialist internationalism. The paper examines the methods and ideas for the imposition of national indifference as well as the role of the discussions between Russian and Bulgarian historians. The cooperation between both academic communities has influenced the establishment and use of communist historiographical myths as well as impacted the way Bulgarian historical consciousness has changed. Another goal of this paper is to examine the painful process of shaking off of the social consciousness from the ideological stamps of communist historiography, which have influenced it for decades and are still relevant.
Session: The Black Sea and the European Integration of the South-East European Countries/ La mer Noire et l'intégration européenne des pays du Sud-Est européen
Organizer: Sergiu IOSIPESCU
Macarie's typographical elements as reflected in South-Eastern European printing
Agnes Terezia ERICH (Târgovişte)
Radu Ştefan VERGATTI (Târgovişte)
The appearance of the printed book entailed a revolution in the culture of the entire mankind. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th, the book penetrated into south-eastern Europe as well. This phenomenon occurred following the emergence of the third printing works using Slavonic letters – that in Wallachia. In 1508-1512, the Wallachian (Romanian) monk Macarie from the monastery near the Montenegrin city of Cetinje printed, in Ungro-Wallachia, a Liturghier 'Liturgy Book' (1508), an Octoih 'Octoechos' (1510) and an Evangheliar 'Gospel Book' (1512). Although he was coming from Montenegro to the court of the Romanian prince Radu the Great (1495-1508), married to princess Catalina of the Montenegrin princely family Crnojević, Macarie the monk printed in the Medio-Bulgarian language. It was the Romanians' liturgical language used in the Middle Ages.
Macarie printed in the city of Târgoviște, then residence of the princes of Ungro-Wallachia. As he had been forced to flee from Montenegro in 1495-1497, the monk Macarie abandoned all his printing letters and tools. Therefore, he had to make new ones. He made new letters of metal. Their duct proves the influence of the calligraphy school created by Gavriil Uric at Neamț Monastery. The most conclusive evidence in this respect is the letter 'm' with 'feet'.
The illustration of books he printed was influenced by that of Romanian religious manuscripts in Moldovia, possibly at Neamț Monastery. They result from frontispieces, borders and initials. All over there are Romanian phytomorphic elements. It was but natural. The Liturghier and Tetraevanghel were such books for the first printed in the history of European typography. He did not take, as a model, the books printed in Venice, though he was familiar with them. It was far from the Venetian ornamentation. He did not copy the books printed in Cracow or Cetinje either.
The initials, particularly those in the Tetraevangheliar, had a new shape, unknown then in Cyrillic printing. Their ornamentation was a mixture of stalks, flowers and other plants as well as another series which imitated the Gothic uncial. It was an original, flamboyant style.
The books printed by Macarie had an influence on the printing centre of Sibiu where Philip the Moldavian (Philippus Mahler) worked and, furthermore, led to their being imitated in the printing centres of monasteries on the territory of former Yugoslavia – Goražde (Montenegro), Rujansk, Belgrade, Mrkšina. However, the books and manuscripts from Bulgaria, Greece and Albania were not influenced for the Sublime Porter had forbidden printing there.
We may conclude that Hieromonk Macarie, through the printing created in Wallachia, brought a number of novelties, namely the creation of a new elegant high letter and original ornamentations. Thus, he opened the way to humanism, to the use of vernacular languages and to the transition from the cosmogonic system to that which put the common, ordinary man at the centre of attention. The most convincing proof in this respect is setting the emblem of Ungro-Wallachian princes on the frontispieces of the Tetraevangheliar. Divine symbols used by the Orthodox Church were thus replaced.
Key-words: printing, ornaments, Gothic uncial, frontispiece, Wallachian emblem, south-eastern Europe
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2. Liturghierul lui Macarie 1508/2008, Studii introductive și traducere, Arhiepiscopia Târgoviștei, Biblioteca Academiei, Târgoviște, 2008.
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5. Molin Virgil, Încă două exemplare din Liturghierul de la 1508 și un exemplar din Evangheliarul macarian (1512), in "BOR", LXXVII (1959), nr. 2, p. 231-237.
6. Molin Virgil, Simonescu Dan, Tipăriturile ieromonahului Macarie pentru Țara Românească. La 450 de ani de la imprimarea Liturghierului, 1508, in "BOR", LXXVI, (1958), nr. 10-11, p. 1004-1035.
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13. Vergatti Radu Ştefan, Neagoe Basarab. Viața. Opera. Domnia, second edition, Ed. Episcopiei Argeșului și Muscelului, Curtea de Argeș, 2009.
Ivan Kishelski's project of Bulgarian liberation
Aleksandar ZLATANOV (Sofia)
This paper examines the very interesting and not so widely-known project for liberation of Bulgaria written by Ivan Kishelski in the mid 1850's, at the end of The Crimean War. The large-scale nature of this program for preparation and liberation of the Bulgarians is well showed in its great depth, insight, structure and knowledge of Bulgarian life and society. Kishelski writes his program in times of a complicated economical and political situation in Europe. At that time Britain and France realizing the bad situation of Balkan's population after The Crimean War exert influence on the Ottoman Empire to issue the Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856. Ivan Kishelski's program has reached to present day due to three manuscripts, preserved at the Bulgarian National Library in Sofia. The project of Ivan Kishelski is the first of its kind and predates with one year the much better known liberation project of his revolutionary companion Georgi Rakovski. The article also looks into the fascinating life and work of Ivan Kishelski. He is a notable military man who starts his military carrier in the Crimean War and later in the Caucasian War and Russo-Turkish War. Kishelski is the first Bulgarian who became a general from the Russian army. In the rebellious 1876 he wrote the first Bulgarian military book (guide book) in the New Bulgarian history. Precisely because of his great military experience and knowledge, he was able to create the first project of liberation of Bulgaria and the first Bulgarian military book. Through his whole life Kishelski was a supporter of the Bulgarian idea, although in various reasons he stayed undeservedly in the shadows for the Bulgarian historiography. Without a shadow of doubt his personality stands in the very first line of the Bulgarian Revival figures in the XIX century.
Brăila - carrefour des routes du Danube maritime (XVIe-XVIIe siècles)
Anca POPESCU (Bucarest)
L'hégémonie ottomane dans le Sud-est de l'Europe est accomplie vers le milieu du XVIe siècle, après la chute de Royaume de Hongrie, après l'établissement du contrôle ottoman sur le pourtour de la mer Noire et sur le cours du Danube. La totale domination sur la Dobroudja (début du XVIe siècle) et conquête de la ville de Brăila (1538) a achevé la transformation du Danube en fleuve turque, et l'intégration par l'Empire Ottoman de tous les débouchés des voies du commerce terrestre vers la Mer Noire.
Préludée par la fermeture des Détroits, la fermeture de la Mer Noire par les ottomans, long et sinueux processus, a eu comme principal contenu, d'une part, de dépouiller les Italiens de leur ancien statut byzantin (système politique colonial, immunité douanière et liberté de naviguer en Mer Noire) et, d'autre part, d'assumer d. p. d vue économique et commerciale l'espace pontique, avec des buts et agents propres. Le régime de l'accès des bateaux vénitiens dans le bassin pontique est paradigmatique pour le régime de tous les Occidentaux après la conquête de Constantinople. De l'étape comprise entre 1482 et 1540, caractérisée par l'accès garanti en Mer Noire, notamment à Keffe et à Trébizonde, à l'époque qui commence près l'an 1540, pendant laquelle l'accès des bateaux dans les eaux pontiques était négociable avec tous les hasards, les concessions et la corruption impliqués par les négociations, une nouvelle ère économique va commencer. La principale conséquence réside dans l'isolement de plus en plus marqué de l'espace pontique de l'influence de l'Europe Occidentale qui lui avait apporté la prospérité. Pourtant, Venise va réagir par l'intensification de son commerce à travers les toutes terrestres vers la Mer Noire, surtout par la Moldavie.
Mais ce processus est très fluctuant et nécessite de nombreuses études ponctuelles.
L'évolution de la fonction commerciale de Braila, ville danubienne sise au carrefour des grandes routes du commerce européen terrestre vers la mer Noire (la route moldave, la route de Braşov), et des circuits maritimes depuis les ports de la Mer Noire, est un indicateur sensible des changements caractérisant le système ottoman du commerce pontique. Des documents ottomans (règlements de commerce, registres de douanes, registres des recensements, les ordres des sultans adressés aux autorités ottomanes locales, etc.) ainsi que des rapports des marchands ou agents diplomatiques vénitiens, ou des relations de voyages diverses, seront mis à contribution pour suivre la désintégration partielle de l'emprise européenne sur le commerce de la Mer Noire ottomane.
The unfinished transition of the Black Sea Region. What role for the European Union?
Georgiana CICEO (Cluj)
Miruna BALOŞIN (Cluj)
Black Sea region is part of an unfinished transition from the Cold War era of block divisions to a new one of enhanced cooperation and stability. Despite the fact that the identities of the former rivals have been reshaped as Russia comes now to control only 30 percent of the former USSR coastline whereas US managed to bring under the NATO umbrella Romania and Bulgaria, that new political actors have entered the stage after the breakup of the USSR and that the strategic significance of the region has come to overpass the framework of the six bordering states in order to encompass vast adjacent areas such as those of South Eastern Europe, Eastern Mediterranean and the Southern Caucasus, the Black Sea region further fails in building a regional identity. Moreover the European Union has come after the latest round of enlargement to border directly on the Black Sea and to have a stake in the stability of the region. As the states of the region tend to bring their interest in line either with Russia or with the EU and NATO rather than defining it in terms of belonging to the region, the overall impression is that regardless of the sea change in the structure of the determinants of the stability of the region, the old rivalry appears to resurface and that a new demarcation line between two integrative systems is in the process of being drawn. Russia's renewed efforts to regain leverage over its direct neighbourhood seen as a natural bulwark and a gateway to the world is only reinforcing this impression.
The European Union has been often criticized for lacking a "grand vision" for the Black Sea area, for the manifest preference for a bilateral approach towards the region and for the multiplication of rather eclectic policies. The question that we ask in this research project is how the European Union can use its normative power in order to enhance cooperation and overcome existing divisions. Additionally we question the source of the main restraints on EU's ability to pull its weight on the region and the ability of the European Union to use its soft power credentials in order to soothe Russia's fears.
We argue that due to its interests in bringing stability and security in its neighbourhood, in securing its energy supplies and in reducing non-traditional security threats posed by weak and failing states, the trafficking of humans and drugs, organized crime and terrorism, the European Union is bound to maintain an active engagement in the region while striving to arrive at a modus vivendi with Russia on the development of their common neighbourhood. We proceed from the observation that almost all Black Sea states claim a European identity that might put European Union in a privileged position for diffusing its norms and boosting reform processes in the region. However due to the delicate strategic balance of the region and EU's dependency on NATO in terms of security, on the one hand, and to Russia's democratic shortcomings, on the other, any advance of democracy is doomed to be regarded by Russia with mistrust only as a disguised attempt to shift away from itself new countries of the region. Under these circumstances we intend to test the factors contributing to the projection of a normative agenda against the reality of a very sensitive security environment in order to discuss possible ways of redesigning this agenda.
KEY WORDS: Black Sea region, European Neighbourhood Policy, Eastern Partnership, Black Sea Synergy, normative power
Kosovo-Serbian relations and the challenge of European integration
Georgios CHRISTIDIS (Thessaloniki)
The EU has been the prime institutional force behind internal reforms and regional co-operation in the West Balkans since 1999. EU efforts have been to a large extent successful, forcing upon the local elites political choices that otherwise they would have found convenient to reject. Improving Serb-Kosovo relations since the latter's declaration of independence in February 2008, or more accurately pushing forward a dialogue between Belgrade and Prishtina, has been among the greatest EU diplomatic successes in the Western Balkans since 2011.
After February 2008, Belgrade sought to block Kosovo's international recognition, while at the same time it continued its policy of supporting the remaining Serb population in Kosovo, a policy - that especially in the north Kosovo - took the form of challenging and undermining the authority of the new state. However, Belgrade's policy choices vis-à-vis Kosovo have changed over time. Thus, from not recognizing the new international institutions that were introduced after Kosovo's independence, like EULEX, it moved into engaging with it. Even more importantly, under pressure by certain EU member states and the EU Commission, Belgrade agreed in September 2010 to enter into a direct dialogue with Prishtina, under the auspices of the EU.
The paper analyses the changes that have taken place in Belgrade's policy vis-à-vis Kosovo since February 2008, and the progress in the Belgrade-Prishtina dialogue from March 2011 until February 2015, illustrating the successful pull of EU policy on promoting regional cooperation, while at the same time underlining the main difficulties and challenges lying ahead.
La cité de Brăila dans le dispositif militaire ottoman de la mer Noire
Ionel CÂNDEA (Brăila)
La grande campagne du sultan Suleyman le Magnifique en Moldavie en 1538 eut comme conséquences territoriale deux importantes modifications de la carte politique du Nord-ouest de la mer Noire: la principauté roumaine Est-Carpatique perdit la cite fortifié de Tighina sur le Nistru et la Valachie la ville de Brăila.
La perte de Tighina, devenue Bender (en français „La Porte", une porte pour les Ottomans), avait une importance circonscrite surtout au bas-Nistru, mais celle de Brăila avait une signification européenne. Car depuis le milieu du XIVe siècle, dans les circonstances de la Croisade anti-Mongole et de la Reconquiste sur l'ancien empire de la Horde d'Or, le port était le terminal d'une des grandes routes du commerce international (« la route Brăila ») qui liait, par la Transylvanie et à travers les Carpates, l'Europe Centrale et de l'Ouest avec le Bas-Danube et la mer Noire. Pour la principauté de la Valachie, depuis l'étape de possession moldave et ensuite l'annexion par l'Empire ottoman de Chilia-Lycostome, ainsi que celle de Cetatea Albă (1486), Brăila était le principal port danubien-pontique du pays.
Si les aspects économiques de l'appartenance de Brăila au sandjaq de Silistrie de l'Empire ottoman seront présentés par Mme. Anca Popescu dans sa communication, je veux développer dans la mienne les aspects politiques et surtout militaires. Ma communication et aussi les considérations suivantes sont le résultat des longues années de recherches archéologiques et de l'analyse des matériaux découverts par les fouilles programmées ou par des trouvailles fortuites.
Contrairement aux opinions avancées par des historiens et surtout par feu le professeur Constantin C. Giurescu, monographiste de la ville a son six-centième anniversaire, les données archéologiques ont infirmé l'assertion d'une fortification de Brăila avant la conquête Ottomane. La ville-port roumaine n'eut pas une citadelle. Seulement après 1538 la présence militaire ottomane fut accompagné par la construction d'une forteresse, dans les années 1540-1546, par l'ordre du sultan Suleyman le Magnifique. Dans le même temps le fonctionnement de la nouvelle organisation militaire impliqua la constitution, comme auparavant à Turnu (le Petit Nicopolis/Nigebolu) et à Giurgiu d'une qaza, hinterland agricole avec quelques villages Roumaines, arrachés à la Valachie.
Par les recherches archéologiques nous savons aujourd'hui que la forteresse avait été implantée sur le site de l'ancien cimetière de la ville du XIIIe-XIVe siecle. Les fouilles ont bénéficié, surtout après 1986, de la découverte des nouvelles sources et notamment du plan de la ville de Brăila en 1819, élaboré grâce aux levées effectues après la guerre Russe-Ottomane de 1806-1812.
Les dernières fouilles ont découvert des fragments du système de communications souterraines du réduit central avec les enceintes. D'après les plans conservés la forteresse d'Ibrail avait, lors du commencement de sa démolition en 1829, cinq enceintes.
Pendant les presque trois cent ans de présence Ottomane la fortification de Brăila avait suivi l'évolution générale de l'art de la fortification, d'autant que, à la fin du XVIe siècle, en 1711, puis pendant les guerres de 1768-1774, 1787-1792, 1806-1812, 1828-1829, elle dut subir des sièges, dévastations et après, pendant les temps de paix des reconstructions et d'adaptations aux nouveaux armements de l'Europe moderne.
1. Ionel Cândea, Brăila. Origini şi evoluţie până la jumătatea secolului al XVI-lea, Brăila, 1995.
2. Ionel Cândea, Geneza oraşului medieval Brăila, dans "Analele Brăilei",n.s., I, 1( 1993), p.19-30.
3. Ionel Cândea, Cercetări arheologice în vatra medievală a oraşului Brăila. 1996-1997, dans "Istros", VIII, 1997, p.257-306.
4. Ionel Cândea, Brăila, fut-elle une forteresse avant 1538?, dans « Il Mar Nero », 4/ 1999-2000, Paris-Roma, p.181-194.
5. Ionel Cândea, Vechile planuri ale oraşului Brăila (I. Johann von Vermatti, 1790), dans "Istros" XII, 2005, p. 189-200.
6. Ionel Cândea, The First Plan of the Citadel and City of Brăila under the Ottoman Occupation, dans Enjeux politique, économiques et militaires en mer Noire, Études à la mémoire de Mihail Guboglu, Brăila, 2007, p. 313-326.
7. Contribuţii privind istoria oraşelor, Vol. XIII, Atlas istoric al oraşelor din România, Série B, Ţara Românească, sous l'egide de l'Academie Roumaine, Commission d'Histoire des villes de Roumanie, fasc. 3, BRĂILA, coordonateurs Ionel Cândea, Dan Dumitru Iacob, Brăila, Editions Istros du Musée de Brăila, 2013.
8. Constantin C. Giurescu, Istoricul oraşului Brăila din cel mai vechi timpuri până astăzi, Bucureşti, 1968.
9. N. Iorga, Din trecutul istoric al oraşului Brăila, ed. Ionel Cândea, Brăila, 1999.
10. Radu Perianu, Raiaua Brăilei, dans „Revista Istorică Română", XV, 1945, p. 287-333.
11. Anca Popescu, Brăila otomană într-o kanunnamea de la 1570, dans „Istros", VII, p. 183-187.
12. Mihai Popescu, Raiaua şi cetatea Brăilei, dans „Analele Brăilei", I, 2-3 (1929), p. 6-19.
L'ancienne gloire revient. Le trafic par le port de Varna au troisième quart du XIXe siècle
Ivan ROUSSEV (Varna)
L'article présente à la fois une revue et une analyse du mouvement des marchandises (importation et exportation) et des vaisseaux (nombre, tonnages, équipages) dans le port de Varna au cours des années 1840 – 1870. L'étude est faite sur base des rapports des frères Adolphe Salvator et Emmanuel-Marius Tedeschi qui remplissaient à différentes périodes de cette époque les fonctions de consuls autrichien, français et belge dans la ville pontique.
Au cours du troisième quart du 19ème siècle, le port de Varna est devenu le débouché principal des produits des territoires clos entre le Hemus (Stara planina) et le Bas Danube, connus ensemble par les Européens sous le nom de « Bulgarie ». L'étude du trafic transitant par le port de Varna des années 1840 à 1870 pourrait permettre d'obtenir une meilleure connaissance du commerce pratiqué sur un territoire faisant partie des principaux pays du Sud-est de l'Europe. L'époque est bien dynamique en raison de l'accroissement de l'intérêt commercial de l'Europe envers les provinces balkaniques de l'Empire ottoman, et ce après, d'une part, l'abolition du monopole sur le commerce des céréales et, d'autre part, la conclusion de conventions entre la Turquie et treize pays européens en 1838 – 1846.
Nation and nationalism in social and political thought of Constantine Leontiev
Julia ZLATKOVA (Sofia)
The paper examines ideological concepts and theories of the Russian philosopher and diplomat Constantine Leontiev (1831-1891) on the issues of modern nationalism. He criticized modern nationalism, which was just a manifestation and a product of the two main targets of his criticism – political liberalism and social egalitarianism. He opposed national idea to religious idea and definitely gave preference to religious principles and values blaming nationalism for cultural decline and depersonalization, and lack of originality and creativity. By examining the European and Balkan national movements in the 19th century, Leontiev made the paradoxical conclusion that political nationalism destroys cultural nationalism. National policy created cosmopolitan uniformity and fusion, not national peculiarity. Modern nationalism, however, was one of the fundaments on which 19th century Europe was build.
Leontiev considered the Byzantine universalism as an antipode of modern nationalism and used Byzantium as a model on which the new Eastern Orthodox civilization should be build. His ideological use of Byzantium as an antithesis and possible future alternative of Modern Europe was untimely and it is not strange that he remained unappreciated and even unnoticed. His paradoxical and provocative ideas were highly unpopular in the 19th century but they are strangely current today, in our time, which was defined as the End of Modern Age and the beginning of the New Middle Ages by Nicolay Berdyaev, Alain Minc, Phil Williams and others. Desecularization of the world and religious revival, crisis of humanism, decline of nation states and emergence of universal unity, political instability and chaos, economic stagnation and beginning of the post-industrial era are significant phenomena, which give us reason to denote the postmodern world of globalization as a New Middle Ages. In this context, Leontiev's vision of a new future, based on the Byzantine past seems not just as a romantic reaction to the past but rather as a very real perspective for the future.
Romanian-Turkish relations and the security of the Black Sea Region, 1990-2014
Liliana Elena BOŞCAN-ALTIN (Bucharest)
The present study aimed to explore the Romanian-Turkish diplomatic and economic relations after Cold War period ennded untill 2014.
After the Ceușescu regime collapsed and also the Cold War period ended, bipolarity has been replaced by a multipolar balance of power and small states have begun enjoying much more liberty to decide about changing their foreign policies. Romanian foreign policy after 1990 shift from isolation to dependence on the West (the EU and NATO).
Romania joined the European Union ( January 1, 2007), also declared its public support for Croatia and Turkey joining the European Union. Romania shares a privileged economic relations with Turkey.
After the Fall on the Iron Curtain, Romania continued the political, diplomatic, economic and cultural relations with Turkey but they did not essentially changed. On the 19th of September 1991, Romanian President, Ion Iliescu and the Turkish President, Turgut Ozal signed the „Treaty of Friendship, Good Neighbourhood and Cooperation" between Romania and Turkey.
Turkey and Romania keep close relations based on a high-level dialogue, in December 2011, during which the Strategic Partnership Declaration aiming at enhancing bilateral relations in every field, particularly in the political and economic domains, was sign.
Economic relations constitute an important aspect of bilateral cooperation, Turkey is Romania's largest trading partner in the Balkans. Bilateral trade volume between the two countries was 4,7 billion Euros and 4,3 billion Euros in 2011 and 2012, respectively.
Romania works with Turkey to strengthen stability, security and good neighborly relations in the Balkans, intensifying trade and economic cooperation in the region, including cross-border cooperation, improving transport infrastructure, communications, energy, investment promotion, development cooperation in humanitarian, social and cultural, and not least, enhanced cooperation on issues related to justice and home affairs, combating organized crime, illicit drug and arms trafficking, illegal migration and terrorism.
Both the Romanian and the Turkish diplomacies have permanently pursued to invigorate and develop the friendship relations, the good neighbourhood and the active cooperation between the countries, in fact one of the essential directions of the Romanian diplomacy at present. Romania and Turkey are connected by a long friendship, tradition established especially after the First World War. Turkey has a important strategic position, as a bridge between Europe and Asia, protector of the Straits, which ties Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
Romania is important to the Danube region, whereas Turkey is important to the Straits. Both countries are united by geography, historical destiny and the Black Sea, an excellent communication and navigation road, which made easier the improvement of the economical relations between them. They are also important for the conservation of the geostrategic balance in the Balkans.
Cooperation between Turkey and Romania is in connection with comon historical, cultural and social values. In the Black Sea region where the quest for stability is the priority, the importance of bulding bridges between the peoples of the region by underline the common values should not be understimeted. The purpose of both country are the same : stability, economical prosperity and a secure environment for all.
KEY WORDS: Romania, Black Sea region, diplomacy, Turkey, European Union
Le port de Vicina en Dobrudja et la Métropole de Valachie dans la politique de l'Empire Byzantine
Radu Ştefan VERGATTI (Târgovişte)
L'évolution de la Valachie s'est produit dans une région géographique hanté par les peuples migrateurs entre les IIIe et XIIIème siècles. En conséquence, les domaines politiques et urbaines se sont développées plus lentement que dans le reste de l'Europe. Dans ces conditions, dans les XIIIème siècle à coté des les princes roumains ont apparu des chorévêques. Également dans le XIIIème siècle l'Empire Byzantin restauré a créé une évêché dans le prospère port Vicina. Cet évêché va devenir à la fin du XIIIe siècle métropole. D'après les registres de le Patriarcat Oecuménique et les écrits de le diacre George Pachymeres rézulte que le métropolite Luc de Vicina avait, vers le début du XIVe siècle, dans son obédience religieuse les habitants du Danube. Vitalien Laurent a montré qu'il s'agit probable de la première mention des Roumains comme unité politique ethnique et autonome. Les documents écrits attéste la connexion entre la Valachie et l'Etat de l'Empire byzantin. C'était une relation naturelle soumise à l'institution de César-papisme. L'existence d'un métropolitain à coté des princes valaques avait pourri achever quand ont été accomplir les exigences des les canons 5 et 6 du Concile de Serdica (343). Conformément aux canons, le siège d'un évêque ne peut fonctionner que dans une ville qui pourrait assurer son existence et dans une église métropolitaine somptueux. À cette fin, les princes roumains Basarab I (1310-1352) et son fils Nicolas-Alexandre (1352-1364) ont fini batir à 1352 l'Église Princière Saint-Nicolas à Curtea de Arges. À l'avis de Charles Diehl cette église était le plus grande édifice orthodoxe au XIVe siècle de Europe du Sud-Est. Dans cette situation très probablement en 1353 le métropolite Hyacinth de Vicina était venu à la cour des princes roumaines. Seulement en 1359 le Patriarcat Oecuménique décidait de déplacer le trôn métropolitan de Vicina à Curtea de Arges. Les actes du Patriarcat Oecuménique sont claires. Ce n'était pas un fondement, mais un déplacement de la métropole. Il a été fait de cette manière puisque l'autorité métropolitaine de Vicina s'étendait dejà sur le territoire Roumain.
En conclusion, on peut affirmer que la métropole de Valachie est né avant 1359. Il peut être daté au début du XIVe siècle. La métropole de Valachie n'était pas le résultat d'une nouvelle fondation, mais d'un déplacement à une ancienne métropole de l'Empire byzantin. Donc, il ne peut parle de une fondation, un terme qui ne figure pas dans les actes du Patriarcat Oecuménique, mais de une relocalisation.
Mot clefs – Vicina, Valachie, évêché, métropole, relocalisation
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Genoese colonies in north-western Black Sea and their contribution to the European integration of the region. Chilia / Licostomo - a case study
Raluca IOSIPESCU (Bucharest)
The paper follows the historical evolution of the harbor towns of the Lower Danube and northwestern Black Sea from the point of view of their specific facilities and their contribution in the integration of the region in the European World, focused on Chilia/Licostomo. The general development of the harbor towns of this region has several characteristics: continuity of position and functions from antiquity to nowadays as in the case of Tomis / Constantza, Callatis / Mangalia, Aegyssus / Tulcea, Noviodunum / Isaccea, Carsium / Hârşova, Durostorum / Silistra; some others are medieval foundations that last until today as Brăila, Galatzi, Ismail/ Chilia; or ephemeral creations living for a period of several centuries as Păcuiul lui Soare/ Vicina (?), Babadag, Karaharman (Vadu), some of which have not yet been identified (Licostomo). But even in the first examples of continuity, it can be observed a certain development with different accents of these settlements at various times; sometimes there are interruptions, followed by resumption of activity in different rhythms. Of course, a geographical determination is found in many cases, natural features, safety of anchorages, providing shelter against storms and currents, present conditions sometimes for centuries, helping to keep the specificity of the site. Natural factors, but more often the human one caused what we might call "increase and decrease" of the harbors towns. We have tried to capture all these conditionings, sometimes intertwined, in their development throughout centuries, as far as historical sources allowed us to do so.
The two republics, Genoa and Venice, have entered an economic competition at the late XIII and the XIV Century, in the race of obtaining the trade monopoly at the Black Sea and Lower Danube. It is the period of establishing of new colonies or fondacci on the old Byzantine port towns' places or the foundation of genuine Italian Ponto-Danube towns.
According to Gheorghe Brătianu the Black Sea has become the "plaque tournante" of international traffic – and there were registered two remarkable early urban port successes in the studied area: Vicina and Chilia Licostomo. We have chosen to use this double name as it appears in many juridical documents in the second half of the fourteenth Century.
The case study on Chilia – Licostomo have attempted a synthesis of all data from diplomatic sources, cartographic, archaeological, trade related, commercial and military fleets and specificities of urban settlements with nautical vocation. There were also added elements regarding the status and functions of which they were beneficing from, the state policy towards them, the crafts and peoples' occupations, ethnic composition, the port and its complex arrangements, types of ships.
After the researches and contributions of Geo Pistarino, Michel Balard, Octavian Iliescu, Serban Papacostea, Vasil Gjuzelev and specially Elsaveta Todorovna, the Chilia-Licostomo case study included a synthetic analysis of all juridical documents written by Antonio de Podenzolo in 1360-1361 published until today, which allowed reconstructing the functioning of the port equipments of the great Genovese colony on the maritime Danube, the daily life in this town and its rayonment in a large region. It's characteristic for this statement that the Romanian tradition concerning the foundation of the town and fortresses in Moldavia connect these foundations with the Genoese. The paper includes also the results of our archeological researches at Yenisale (Enisala, Tulcea department, Romania) in the region just influenced by the Genoese presence at the neighborough Chilia-Licostomo.
Airaldi, Gabriella, Studi e documenti su Genova e l'Oltremare, Genova, 1974
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Balbi, G., Raiteri, S., Notari genovesi in oltremare. Atti rogati a Caffa e a Licostomo, Genova, 1973
Brătianu, Gh., Recherches sur le commerce genois dans la mer Noire au XIIIe siecle, Paris, 1929
Brătianu, Gh., Recherches sur Vicina et Cetatea Albă, Bucureşti, 1935
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Argumente für die Identität Vicina-Mâcin
Virgil CIOCILTAN (Bucharest)
Die Historiker versuchen seit mehr als hundert Jahren das verschollene Vicina, berühmtes Handelszentrum und orthodoxer Metropolitensitz an der unteren Donau im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert, zu lokalisieren. Die herangezogenen Beweise konnten bisher keiner gegenwärtigen Ortschaft die sichere Nachfolge der mittelalterlichen Hafenstadt bescheinigen.
Der Verfasser bespricht kritisch die wichtigsten Identifizierungsversuche, die im Laufe der Zeit unternommen worden sind, und steuert einige neue Argumente, die für die Gleichsetzung Vicina – Măcin plädieren.
Historiographisch übersehene Zeugnisse, die seine Beweisführung untermauern, sind beispielsweise die Anmerkung mons Vicina, die in einer zeitgenössischen Seekarte eingetragen ist, und der sprachliche Zusammenhang der beiden Ortsnamen. Es handelt sich um Indizien, die unverkennbar zur Debatte gehören und die die Identität Vicina – Măcin befürworten.
Session: Legacies of Socialism and Post-socialist Changes in South-East and Central Europe/ L'héritage du socialisme et les changements рost-socialistes en Europe centrale et du Sud-Est
Organizer: Žarko LAZAREVIĆ
Transition and the charizmatic leader: The case of Croatia
Albert BING (Zagreb)
An important aspect of the (post)communist and post-Yugoslav Croatian political heritage is the legacy of an exceptional role of charizmatic political leader. Tito's cult of personality played a major role as the most important integration factor of multinational and communist Yugoslav society. The core of new Croatian political elite after democratic changes in the nineties was mainly composed of former communist party members; many of them were „party" dissidents and converted communists who formaly proclaimed an orientation toward democratic values but only switched from „class" ideology to exlusive nationalist orientation. To a certain extent part of the new Croatian political elite - especially some of the Croatian political emigrees - adhered to the concept of charismatic leader and charismatic nation inspired by the fascist Independent State of Croatia (NDH) established during the WWII. Furtheremore, the Croatian path to a pluralist civil society was burdened with national conflicts initiated by the ideology of Greater Serbia and a series of brutal wars related to the collapse of the Yugoslav state and the establishment of an independent Croatian state. The prevailing nationalistic politics and warlike circumstances affected transition from communist to civil society as well as changes in economy. The central figure of the whole political life became former communist and Tito's general, the leader of the electoral victor (a party called the Croatian Democratic Union) and the first elected Croatian president, historian Franjo Tuđman. Despite proclaimed democratic changes his political philosophy was significally affected by his formative years during the WWII and after-war „Stalinist" period of communist rule. Tito's concept of charizmatic leader as a fundament of political life was also visible in Tuđman's political style. His inclination to impose an autocratic style of rule and a „one man - one party" political concept presented one of the most endurable political legacy which reflected a serious deficit of democratic culture. In order to consolidate the political and historical controversies of the Croatian past Tuđman promoted the concept of reconciliation of Croatian communists and ustasha nationalists who fought on opposite side during the WWII; similar to the manner in which Josip Broz Tito's charisma maintained the concept of "brotherhood and unity," in the same way did the authority of the first Croatian President Tuđman keep shut "Pandora's box" with surviving ideologies which became an insurmountable component of daily politics. "Reconciliation" actually sparked endless ideological debates and conflicts which, instead of consolidating the nation, led to a sharp polarization of the Croatian society. In many aspects of recent Croatian history the concept of charisma – epitomized in Tuđman's politics - presented an ambivalent and controversial phenomenon. On the one hand Tuđman's charismatic profile was one of the main factors of a successful statehood policy and the Croatian war victory. On the other hand it was a serious obstacle for successful transition and establishment of an open and democratic civil society.
Aspects of the Slovenian, Serbian and Croatian examples of economic transition
Aleksander LORENČIČ ( Ljubljana)
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, symbolically announcing the beginning of the transition, the socialist systems started toppling over like dominoes. More than thirty countries included in the process of transition faced a significant challenge of joining the capitalist system as quickly as possible and avoiding major shocks. The starting positions of the transition countries were very different, and in comparison with the others Slovenia enjoyed better conditions. Since specific circumstances were present in all of the transition states, at the first stage of the transition it was most important that the individual states adopted specific measures, relied on their own experience, and adapted the institutional changes, required for a successful transformation, to the local situation. In the following discussion this is presented in more detail with the examples of the former Yugoslav "brotherly" republics: Slovenia, Serbia, and Croatia. As shown in the discussion, it is also clear that stability in the political and general sense was necessary for a successful transition and economic development, regardless of the chosen approach to transition. Slovenia had this stability, while Serbia and Croatia did not. Serbia remained unstable even after the fall of Slobodan Milošević, and therefore the economic issues were not a priority there.
Keywords: transition, economy, privatisation, Slovenia, Serbia, Croatia
Some considerations regarding the evolution of the post-communist political ideologies in Romania. Case study: Nationalist movements after 1989
Andrei TINU (Bucharest), Catalin BOBOC (Bucharest)
The elimination of autarkic regimes in Central and Eastern Europe at the end of the ninth decade of the twentieth century created a major geostrategic imbalance, especially after 1991 – the dissolution of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – and prompted political reconfiguration of Europe towards the westernization of former satellites of the USSR by the acceptance and internalization of economic, legislative and political instruments of democratic states. Romania also went through the European road and is currently a member of NATO (2004) and the European Union (2007), but the integration is not yet complete. The transition towards a consolidated democracy and functional market economy has been difficult, as it has been "cynically exploited by former bureaucrats to reach important economic positions", and hence to seize political power. The transition was similar in terms of domestic trends/political ideologies. Ideological struggles of the early '90s were turned, within a short time period, into fights for the accumulation of (economic, political) power and influence in not exactly orthodox ways. The right and left wings have been intertwined, so that the differentiation is currently increasingly difficult to do. However, in the whirl of events and after the ban of RCP (Romanian Communist Party), the main political currents occurred also on the Romanian political scene. Social-Democracy (Romanian Social Democratic Party – Social Democratic Party), the Christian Democracy/European popular movement (Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, Democratic Liberal Party), liberalism (National Liberal Party, Liberal Party '93, National Liberal Party-Democratic Convention), moderate nationalism (Romanian National Unity Party, Greater Romania Party) contributed to Romania's way, with ups and downs, towards Europe.
Romanian nationalism rooted in national movements of the nineteenth century, as a manifestation of ethnic-linguistic identity. It is, using a wordplay, a "nationalism of fear and desire for affirmation" while nationalism of the great powers is a "nationalism of pride/vanity". Eminescu, our national poet, said that "We are Romanian and punctum!", expression that wanted to strengthen the affiliation to two spaces: the Orthodox and the Latin one. After the fall of communism in Romania, nationalist movements played an important role on the Romanian political scene especially until 2000, when the most resounding leader of the nationalist parties, Corneliu Vadim Tudor, reached round II of presidential elections.
This presentation brings about a series of questions and answers regarding the impact of the activity of movements, organizations and nationalist parties on the transformation of Romanian society. We will also try a diachronic and synchronic analysis of sub-current types of nationalism which occurred in Romania: nationalism of majority versus nationalism of minorities (the politics of Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania), cultural nationalism versus political nationalism, the local nationalism.
Legal rehabilitation of Dragoljub Mihailovic as a mirror of the politics of history in post-Milosevic Serbia
Jelena DUREINOVIĆ (Giessen)
The paper analyzes the legal aspect of the official work on memory of the Second World War and of socialist Yugoslavia in post-Milosevic Serbia. Legislation is an important aspect of Serbian history politics on the Second World War, which emerged after the fall of Milosevic and the 2000 transition. The 2004 changes of the Veteran Law which defines the rights of the veterans of the liberation movements and the Rehabilitation Laws of 2006 and 2011 represent a legal aspect of the separation from the Yugoslav master narratives, including the reevaluation of the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland (the Chetniks). The 2006 Rehabilitation Act has a vague formulation, not providing specific directions about implementation and who can and cannot be rehabilitated, except if sentenced or killed for ideological or political reasons, making the rehabilitation very problematic in practice. Although the 2011 law solved most of the issues, the requests filed before 2011 are processed according to the first law. By using a case study of the rehabilitation case of Dragoljub Mihailovic, the leader of the Chetniks, which started in 2010, this paper discusses the issues which arise in the implementation of the rehabilitation laws, providing the context of the official culture of remembrance on the Second World War in Serbia and the state initiated or supported actions serving it. This court case represents a valuable case study of the politics of history in Serbia, because it brings together the several aspects of this phenomena: historians as expert witnesses, government commissions and legislation.
Legacy of socialism in economic and social aspects of post-communist Croatia
Josip MIHAJLEVIĆ (Zagreb)
The author analyzes the influence of the socialist system that existed in Croatia and Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990 on the present state of the Croatian society and brings the thesis that transition from socialist to liberal democratic capitalist system is not adequately implemented, moreover in some spheres of social life it has not been implemented at all. The author defines several questions for discussion which analyzes the legacy of socialism in the economy and in social relations. The basic idea is that the actual transition performed fully only in the political system, while in the sphere of economy, political culture and mentality of the citizens the socialist heritage still has a significant role. That legacy is one of the main obstacles for a full and successful transition of Croatia.
Almost a quarter century has passed since the beginning of the transition, but in the economic system, especially in terms of management the process is not finished yet. By comparing the economic system that existed in the socialist period with today's economic system, which is considered a liberal-capitalist, many similarities are revealed, which shows that in many elements the Croatian economy has not changed its character. In many parameters of economic freedom the Croatian economy is extremely illiberal because the presence of the State in the economy is extremely high. An excessive government intervention fosters shadow economy. Furthermore, the lack of free market and economic freedom is directly connected to all other freedoms of the individual and society. A state that is omnipresent in the market is omnipresent in other spheres of social life. Thus, an average Croatian citizen today expects from the state to ensure efficient health care, free education, job, pension, and generally dignified life. This creates passive citizens which only execute obligations which were defined by the state, and in return they expect that the state take care of them. One of the causes of such a situation is "socialist mentality" that has been systematically developed in Croatia between 1945 and 1990. Public opinion polls in matters of economics and social relations nowadays shows a significant anti-liberal attitude and a lot of similarities with attitudes which dominated in the period of the so-called self-management socialism.
In his research author uses a double comparative analysis. On the one hand the economic principles that existed in Croatia in the 1960s and 1970s are compared to today's economic programs of the Government, but also the economic programs of the opposition political parties. On the other hand the analysis of public opinion in the 1960s and 1970s are compared to those of today's Croatia.
Commodification of the collective memory: Yugonostalgia as a marketing strategy
Jovana VUKČEVIĆ (Nice)
This paper focuses on a specific type of contemporary nostalgia for the Yugoslav past, emerging in recent years across the post-Yugoslav space – Yugonostalgia, and various aspects of its commodification and commercial manipulation. It will question how post-socialist nostalgia in former Yugoslavia became more than a simple discursive construction (emerging from the idealized collective memory) and turned into a veritable marketing strategy exploiting Yugonostalgic symbols.
Nostalgia has been used to brand products as Yugoslav and to mobilize collective memories as leverage over consumer' decision-making. Media campaigns that instigate warm feelings for Yugo-commodities and positive associations with the former state create new patterns of consumptions seeking to commercialize these nostalgic experiences. The central notion here is the one of "nostalgic" product, consumers' commodity whose acquisition, possession and consumption develop and enhance one's identity. The paper asks how popular identification with certain values and products from the period of communist Yugoslavia, created a whole new market of nostalgia – selling everything from beverages and newspapers to music, movies and tourist destinations. How this appropriation of historicity has been used to brand Yugoslav products and how collective memories impact consumer's decision-making?
Asymmetries of development and their impact on democratic development of Albania
Kosta BARJABA (Tirana)
Albania has followed a non-clear model for economic development during the transition. The model has not been based on the country's resources and its comparative and competitive advantages. Consequently, there has been noted a visible asymmetry between national natural and human resources and the model of development. Furthermore, the model of economic development has experienced its own internal asymmetries, such as the asymmetry between sectors of development and sectorial priorities. Sometimes specific sectors have reciprocally delayed their development. There also critical asymmetries between the model of development and the welfare system. The model of economic development has failed to supply the welfare system with contributive resources. Meanwhile, the welfare system, being principally supported by budgetary resources has commenced a substantial redistribution character. In addition, the welfare system by using significant budgetary resources has caused a shortage on budgetary resources for public investments in the country. These asymmetries, which have been developed despite the governing ideologies, have had their impact on the poverty level in the country. The poverty has also been a factor in delaying the democratic development.
The perception of the Croatian public of the process of privatization, 1990-2010
Lidija BENCETIĆ (Zagreb)
The disintegration of the communist Yugoslavia and the creation of the independent Republic of Croatia, launched a series of social and economic processes, but it also resumed processes started in Yugoslavia, such as the process of privatization. The process of privatization (and conversion) is one of the key transitional processes in which social ownership becomes a private or state ownership. As an important transition process that has affected the lives and destiny of many people (increased unemployment and poverty for one major part of the society and rapid enrichment for other part), the topic of the privatization has become an integral part of everyday discourse, and is also present in all daily and weekly newspapers.
It is the newspapers, as a medium of mass communication (along with television), that were one of the main channels through which information and different opinions, about the researched topic, came to citizens. Thus the newspapers, on the one hand influenced public opinion and helped creating it, and on the other hand they were the voice of the public, and also in them is seen the perception of the Croatian public about the process of privatization, but also the perception of politicians and businessmen, and journalists - columnists. The main myths and delusions about the privatization were created in media and over time they will become the ˝privatization legacy˝ and will have an impact on public perception in future.
In the proposed research, the author will, using the daily newspapers Vjesnik and Večernji list and weeklies Globus and Nacional, reconstruct the phases of development and changes in the perception of the Croatian public about the process of privatization, will detect myths, delusions and expectations, as well as analyze how much did the communist legacy influenced the public perception about liberal democracy, capitalism and the process of privatization.
Between communist past and democratic future: Conceptualizing the transition in contemporary Bulgaria
Magdalena PRESHLENOVA (Edinburgh)
Understandably, academics and politicians address the transition in Eastern Europe after 1989. Following the 25th anniversary of the political change in Bulgaria, multiple surveys were conducted to assess social attitudes and afflictions. Some of them have revealed an astonishing deficiency of knowledge regarding the communist past in Bulgaria, especially among the youngest population. Reportedly, 94% of the people between 16-30 years know almost nothing about the pre-1989 era, which poses a significant threat to the upholding of democratic values and principles in the future. This symptomatic unawareness of Bulgaria's recent past among the general public implies a general insufficient capacity to deal with the contemporary issues, inherited from the communist regime.
In the quarter century since the collapse of communism, a majority of political and social developments in the former Soviet bloc have been attributed to historical legacies. Indeed, Bulgaria still struggles with completely rooting out the legacies of communism of its government structures, institutions and even social attitudes, which impedes the consolidation and smooth functioning of democracy domestically. Despite a common notion of the necessity to address the spillovers of communism in the contemporary democracies, there is a lack of general consensus over the conceptualization of the historical processes that are still underway. Should Bulgaria strive to overcome these hurdles, a more unified and systemized grasp of the legacies of socialism need to be attained to problematize their impact on recent political and social affairs.
More importantly, post-communist legacies in contemporary structures ought to be disseminated at a national level so that public and government effort can be allocated to challenging the status quo and initiating more fervently common reform in line with Bulgaria's forward-looking attempts of consolidating democracy. This paper will look at this issue on three levels: institutional, material and cultural. At the level of institutions, Bulgaria, like many other countries from the former Soviet bloc, has inherited an old regime of institutions, elites and organizations in control of the political, business and social life in the country. In terms of the material legacies of communism, the country still struggles with its infrastructure, the destruction of the environment and the dominance of the state sector. Lastly, there has been little change in the cultural beliefs and attitudes of population, translating into a weak civil society, apathy towards political participation and distrust towards the state. Albeit at different degrees, all post-communist countries struggle with resolving their past and constructing their future, so the analysis to be presented here can be beneficial for elaborating a multifaceted picture of the issues South-East and Central Europe face together.
Slovenian intellectuals and Yugoslavism in the 1980s
Marko ZAJC ( Ljubljana)
The aim of the paper is to reveal the changes in the Slovenian intellectual discourse on the "Slovenian national question" in the 1980's. Intellectuals have criticized contemporary and past Slovenianism, or they were revising what does mean to be a Slovenian and trying to find a place for the Slovenian nation/culture/state in the (post)industrial global society. By doing so, they have helped to (re)construct Slovenian nationalism. Somewhere along the way the Yugoslavism unnoticeably seceded from the concepts of the Slovenian Intellectuals. Yugoslavia was rarely mentioned, it was simply not important any more. Slovenian Yugoslavism has gradually »peeled away« like an old street poster, it »has detached« from Slovenianism precisely by means of absence. Project methodology emphasizes comparative and transnational perspectives. Relevant contexts: the context of Communism in East Central/South-East Europe, the context of Central Europe, the context of democratic Europe, the context of intellectual Yugoslavia.
Lost in transition: Textile workers' lives in Slovenia
Nina VODOPIVEC (Ljubljana)
I am interested to see how processes of post-socialist transformation have affected industrial textile workers' lives in Slovenia. My aim is to explore the ways in which the changes in politics and society and people's changed reference frames have served to redefine textile workers' perceptions of the socialist past and their current understanding of working and broader living environments. The legacies of socialism will be questioned within the framework of various interpretations, public discourses, representations, and perceptions of post-socialist modernity. My presentation is in particular interested in exploring industrial workers' perspectives that is why it will focus on interviews with textile workers (retired, still working and unemployed workers across Slovenia) and representations of industrial workers in public spaces. My intention is not to reconstruct the socialist past, but to explore the intertwinements between the past and post-socialist present. With the focus on everyday practices I question transitional discourse and argue that changes in post-socialism are not simple and unidirectional. Following such analytical orientations the article addresses macro and micro levels to reveal the various ways in which people contest or contradict, follow or oppose institutional changes. The idea is not only to add a case study to the larger story on "transition" but to question the story itself and the one-sidedness of its imaginary. By exploring representations of post-socialist transition in Slovenia in relation to modernization I aim to point at the inequalities such discourses produce, the power relations in which they are located and the lived realities that are hidden behind them.
Les longues transitions dans les Balkans orientaux: Roumanie et Bulgarie, une approche historique
Olivier BUIRETTE (Paris)
Nous avons ici choisi une approche en deux moments car la période de 1997 en ce qui concerne la Roumanie mais aussi les autres pays de l'Europe centrale et des balkans présente une différence importante avec celle des années 2000. Nous comparerons ces deux périodes afin de montrer en quoi la vision de la transition dans ces pays a pu évoluer.
Pour cette intervention nous nous baserons sur deux événements importants dans l'histoire récente des Balkans, d'une part le voyage de Jacques Chirac de 1997 à Bucarest qui se situe dans une vaste tournée en Europe centrale et dans les Balkans entre 1996 et 1998 et qui marque la volonté dans le premier septennat du président français d'ancrer au plus vite les PECO dans l'Union européenne. Nous montrerons comment finalement celle-ci s'est réalisée en deux étapes en 2004 d'abord puis en 2007 ensuite. Le second moment que nous étudierons est cet événement unique dans l'histoire récente des Balkans où un ancien souverain, le Roi Siméon II de Bulgarie qui avait été exilé en septembre 1946, reviens aux affaires comme « simple » premier ministre et pour un peu plus de 4 ans de 2001 à 2005, le temps de finaliser le processus d'intégration de la Bulgarie à l'Union européenne qu'il ne verra pourtant pas puisqu'il est battu aux élections législatives de l'été 2005. Pour réaliser cette étude au travers de ces deux moments nous nous baserons sur les publications en ligne des archives correspondantes au premier voyage de Jacques Chirac en Roumanie en 1997. Pour la seconde partie nous nous baserons sur une étude de la presse bulgare de l'époque ainsi que d'articles de fonds qui ont été écrits depuis. L'objectif sera de montrer au travers de ces événements que nous nous proposons d'analyser, deux processus de la lente transition du socialisme vers l'intégration européenne.
Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts and Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in the 1990s
Željko OSET (Nova Gorica)
In the search for the causes of the violent breakup of Yugoslavia after 1990s a special role in the mobilization for war and violence was partially attributed to intellectuals. In this regard, the role of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is usually mentioned, as its members prepared a memorandum, commonly known as the SANU Memorandum, which included controversial views on the state, relations between nations and the demand for fundamental reorganization of Yugoslavia. The thesis about Serbia's inferior status in Yugoslavia received much attention. In late 1980s in Yugoslavia, in a heated atmosphere, in the period of economical difficulties, deepening national mistrust, political crisis, the Memorandum gave additional incitement to the nationalist discourse in Yugoslavia. The response of Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts towards the Memorandum and political crisis was contained, despite the opposite expectations of some Slovenian opinion makers. The President of the Slovenian Academy genuinely believed in the special role of the Yugoslavian Academy of Sciences and Arts as bridges for cooperation between the Yugoslavian nations. The aim of the paper is to present the role of the Slovenian and Serbian Academies after the Breakup of Yugoslavia in the nineties and their role in formulating the strategy of international scientific cooperation as well as domestic research policy.
Session: NATO in the Balkans. The Evolution of Euro-Atlantic Integration and South-East Europe: History, Realities, and Perspectives/L'OTAN dans les Balkans. L'Évolution de l'intégration et l'Europe du Sud-Est: histoire, réalités et perspectives
Organizers: Jordan BAEV, John NOMIKOS
Plans for nuclear mining along NATO's South-eastern Flank, 1966-1973: The case of Atomic Demolition Munitions (ADMs) in Greece and Turkey
Dionysios CHOURCHOULIS (Patra)
Even before John F. Kennedy's election as President of the United States in November 1960, a debate had begun in the United States and NATO over the proper role of conventional forces and a possible revision of US and NATO military strategy. Several Western policy makers and military planners had begun to question the wisdom of overreliance to nuclear weapons, which was the cornerstone of Western strategy against the Warsaw Pact. Thus, in late 1959, the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), General Lauris Norstad, and his senior staff officers acknowledged that "NATO, in addition to having the capability of waging full-scale war, should also be prepared to react instantly and in appropriate strength to other aggressions against NATO territory such as infiltrations, incursions or hostile local actions." For their part, Greek and Turkish civil and military leaders felt that in case of a local conflict, NATO and the West in general might 'abandon' their exposed countries, and pressed for additional and credible NATO support in peacetime and in case of crisis or war.
When the Kennedy administration decided to implement a new US strategy, the 'Flexible Response,' this was officially adopted by NATO only in December 1967. One of the pillars of this doctrine was the concept of forward defense, which was supposed to be implemented in all areas covered by the NATO treaty. The new strategy had significant implications for the south-eastern region of NATO: it placed greater emphasis on the need to increase conventional capabilities of local forces to respond to limited forms of conflict. However, Greece and Turkey were incapable of raising and sustaining such forces at an adequate level.
There were two possible solutions: either the grant of generous economic and military aid to strengthen local forces, or timely external reinforcement by a NATO multinational force in case of crisis or conflict – or, preferably, both. Despite Greek and Turkish pleas for additional aid and successive reports by senior NATO commanders (including the Commander in Chief Southern Europe – CINCSOUTH), who urged for the maintenance of US aid at least at pre-1961 levels, additional aid was not forthcoming.
The establishment of a multinational NATO force able to deploy rapidly into Greek and Turkish territory appeared more plausible. This would serve military as well as political aims. The commitment and intervention of such a force in time of tension would demonstrate the determination of NATO to react and exhibit the alliance's solidarity to its most exposed and vulnerable members. The timely deployment of such a force might prevent the development of a local situation from rapidly expanding and then leading to general war. By mid-1962, (before the Cuban Missile Crisis), the newly established multinational ACE (Allied Command Europe) Allied Mobile Force Land, the AMF(L), began to prepare contingency plans and exercises in northern Greece, Turkish Thrace and eastern Anatolia.
Distrust, hope, and distrust again: NATO and Macedonia in 1991-2001
Evgenii KOLOSKOV (Saint Petersburg)
The proclamation of Macedonia's independence in 1991 took place against the backdrop of sharp changes in the international situation. There were rapid fall of the socialist regimes in Eastern Europe the collapse of the Eastern bloc and, especially disappearance of the Warsaw Pact. The Western and Eastern blocs were not united. An unipolar model of the world had become a reality. History of relations between NATO and Macedonia was a history of hope and distrust of young nation during Balkan crisis in 1990s. The leaders of new Macedonian state could not ignore the crucial role of the external factors. They sought membership in some international organizations to consolidate the independence of the country. The main idea of the officials of the Republic of Macedonia was therefore an accession to the UN, the EU and NATO. NATO in the list was to play the role of guarantor of the new state security. The Defense Minister Popovski officially announced that Macedonia wanted to join NATO on May 25th, 1993. The Macedonian parliament adopted a long-term program for accession to NATO on December 23th.
However, these aspirations of Macedonian authorities did not achieve a result, yet. Soon after Macedonia declared independence, a problem of naming (so-called Macedonia naming dispute between the Republic Macedonia and the Hellenic Republic) arose. The dispute allows Greece to veto all Macedonian attempts of the Euro-Atlantic integration. At some point the Macedonia government had despaired and had proposed so-called a policy of equidistance. New hope to join NATO appeared only in 1995 after Interim accord was signed between Macedonia and Greece.
The Political Committee of NATO formally proposed Macedonia to join the Partnership for Peace on November 9th, 1995, and on November15th Macedonia became a 27th member of this international program of military cooperation. An agreement of security was signed between Macedonia and NATO on January17-19th, 1996. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia finally got some assurance of their safety. Macedonia began to show interest in the deployment some NATO troops on its territory because of the Kosovo crisis in 1998. Macedonia received a formal request from NATO on the use of airspace on June 12th, 1998 . Macedonia has agreed to provide its territory for NATO forces at the end of 1998, when it was clear impending confrontation between NATO and the Yugoslavia.
The Kosovo War was the first serious challenge for the idea of the Euro-Atlantic integration of Macedonia. The war divided the Macedonian society – supporters and opponents of the war against Yugoslavia. Macedonia suffered the greatest economic losses because of the NATO's operation. Macedonia had to give refuge to a large number of Albanians. The next challenge for Macedonia-NATO cooperation was the military crisis in 2001. Macedonia was on the brink of civil war at that time. Nobody in Macedonia had caused enthusiasm NATO's role in resolving the crisis and the subsequent disarmament of Albanian rebels.
Session: Minority Identitites and the European Integration in South-East Europe /Identités minoritaires et intégration européenne en Europe du Sud-Est
Organizers: Areti DEMOSTHENOUS, Nicolae-Şerban TANAŞOCA
Islam and Modern Integration: Aspects of Symbiosis with different Religious Groups
Areti DEMOSTHENOUS (Nicosia)
Albert Einstein emphasizes that we cannot go ahead repeating same mistakes and expect different results. Europe, global Europe today hosts many minorities, coming from a variety of countries and cultures, religions and habits, from around the World, with good reasons due to mixed labor, international market and why not, aiming at a unified education. However, all these to be implemented member States need to find out a model of integration which will make immigrants from cultural consumers in the hosting (new) country to cultural producers; full citizens being able to enjoy the hosting country's culture without losing their own one from their country of origin. A successful integration will promote not only peaceful coexistence but also financial prosperity in South-East Europe. This paper will examine the potential of symbiosis different religious groups have and discuss the possibilities of integration especially Muslim adherents have when living in a European country where they do not form the majority of the population.
Ethnic affiliation, common memory and traditional culture of Slavic Muslims in Albania: Adaptating and preserving the identity in changing South-Eastern Europe
Alexander NOVIK (Saint Petersburg)
The paper is devoted to the question of ethnic affiliation of Slavic Muslims in conditions of combined ethnical neighborhood. There are around ten settlements with Slavic Muslims population in the Eastern part of the Republic of Albania (Mac. Golo Brdo, Alb. Golloborda). The border territory between Albania and Macedonia is an important area for ethnographic, linguisti, and sociolinguistic studies. This region is inhabited by Albanians (Muslims, Catholic and Orthodox Christians), Macedonians (Orthodox and Muslim), Muslim Roma, and Orthodox Aromanians. This multiethnic and multiconfessional situation determines the complexity of social and cultural processes in North-Eastern Albania and Western Macedonia. Five scientific researchers from St. Petersburg: Andrej Sobolev, Alexander Novik, Denis Ermolin, Maria Morozova and Alexandra Dugushina (Institute of Linguistic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography and St. Petersburg State University) had organized fieldwork in the villages Trebisht, Klenje, Ostren etc. in 2008-2010.
The overall number of Slavic Muslims in this region reaches several thousands, and more exact statistics are still in lack. The official results of the latest census of population and households in Albania (held in October-November 2011, Alb. Censusi i popullsisë dhe i banesave 2011) that were published in 2012 don't elucidate this issue [Censusi 2011, INSTAT]. According to the Albanian Institute of Statistics, the population of the country is 2 821 977 people with the Macedonian minority of 0,2 % [Censusi 2011; Censusi 2011, INSTAT]. Macedonian as a mother tongue (Alb. gjuhë amtare) declared 0,16 % of population (thus, not all the people who declared the Macedonian identity can speak the language). However these figures comprise all Macedonians of the country – including the officially recognized Macedonian community in the Prespa Lakes region.
Slavic population of Golo Bordo is extremely interesting when it comes to the issues of identity preservation and its transformation in the changing environment of multiethnic, multilingual and multiconfessional region. Their collective memory is based on the established set of markers that seem to be important while analyzing the current social and cultural situation in this Slavic-Albanian border area. The question of self-identification in this region is rather complicated. We managed to record the following options: Makedonci, Muslimane, Turci, Naši, B'lgari.
The author puts into academic context a new description of almost unexplored Slavic Muslims community. The data have been obtained during the fieldworks in Eastern Albania. In conditions of long-term neighborhood with other languages and religious denominations, the adapting mechanisms have worked out specific approaches to preserving ethnical identity and traditional culture, perceiving their value and necessity of translating to descendants.
Materials of fieldwork include data about identity, language, culture of Slavic Muslims community in different periods of the state of Albania (Osmanli time, Royal Albania, Enver Hoxha monism period, post-communist transition, modern republic). These expedition materials are archived in the Kunstkamera (St. Petersburg).
Human security in the Western Balkans – Bosniak minority in Sanjak (Serbia)
Anna JAGIELLO-SZOSTAK (Wrocław)
The definition of human security is not limited and the scope of its interests mainly include: organized crime and criminal violence, human rights, discrimination of national minorities, good governance, armed conflict, humanitarian intervention, genocide and mass-scale crimes, health, sustainable development and the environment. The methodology in these articles use different approaches, because human security is treated as an interdisciplinary subject. A people-centered approach will be used for resolving inequalities that affect international and national security, as individuals have an enormous impact on states when it comes to creating a safe environment in which human beings can live, and vice versa.
The specific human security needs were identified in the Western Balkans. Also, the post-conflict situation of the region is related to the post–war zones, political and economical transition and also to the impact of the Euro-Atlantic perspective. The state (Serbia) and its lack of political will (or capacity) to cope with the post-conflict situation and protection of minority rights, is the focus of the research.
In this context, Sanjak of Novi Pazar will be presented as an example of a post-conflict region in Serbia with Bosniak minority that has faced socio-economical and political problems. The mentioned region is treated as a post-conflict zone, albeit there was no direct armed conflict during the Balkan War of the 1990s. However, the geopolitical position of Sanjak, between Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro determine it's contemporary situation.
Sanjak, as an entire region, is located between Serbia and Montenegro, but Sanjak of Novi Pazar, is a part of Serbia and will be the centre of the author's attention. The presented region has been an industrial area since the beginning of 90's, and after the collapse of Yugoslavia, started to face several problems. Bosniak minority, that is numerous in this region, directly or indirectly has suffered from condition of the region. First of all, a lack of jobs lead to general poverty. Secondly, poverty forced people (or they were forced) to take up new professions - not always legal ones. Which meant that unemployment created a recruiting pool for organized crime, human trafficking , and the drugs or weapons trade. Crimes, connected to the economy seem to have a more serious impact on the stability and prosperity of the Serbian state, than political ones. Additionally, Sanjak lies on a smuggling and trafficking route of from Asia to Western Europe, which poses a threat not only to the Balkan Peninsula, but also for the rest of Europe. Thirdly, there are threats to civil society in Sanjak of Novi Pazar. Generally civil society in the Western Balkans is a main target of radical nationalists, who strongly affect relations between national minorities and human rights in general. At the end, Author will focus on potential EU membership of Serbia that is powerful conflict prevention tool which cause that Serbia try to obey and implement legal aspects of national minorities rights.
The positions of Albanians and Albanian in Presheva Valley – a linguistic and geopolitical analysis
Lindita SEJDIU-RUGOVA (Prishtina)
Arsim EJUPI (Prishtina)
The aim of this paper is to bring up the status and the position of the Albanians and Albanian language from the perspective of linguistic, cultural, social and geo-political studies. The research will be focused mainly on two municipalities of the southwestern part of Serbia – Preshevo and Bujanovac, where the majority of population is Albanian, and where Albanian language, together with Serbian is the official language on the territory of these two municipalities (Službeni Glasnik Pčinjskog Okruga, , nr. 24, October, 7th 2008).
The Presheva Valley stretches out in a territory of 1.250 square kilometers, with an Albanian population of around 100.000, who currently make up almost 80 per cent of the region's population. Out of 136 settlements in this territory, the Albanian population dwells in 64 rural types of dwelling and 3 urban settlements, which are at the same time the region's municipal administrative centers -- Presheva, Bujanoc, and Medvegja . Albanians make an absolute majority in 41 settlements. Besides the municipal centers, there is a number of rural settlements with a mixed ethnic population, with Albanians outnumbering other communities.
The status of Albanian and Albanians will be treated by giving evidences of legal sanctions and practical situation, based on application of the laws in force. In order to reflect the status of Albanian in this region more precisely, other data, mainly deriving from a conducted survey with Albanian citizens from the two municipalities as well as from anonymous questionnaires with high school students from these two municipalities (random questionnaires) will be used, too.
The questionnaires will be conducted in the secondary schools in Bujanovac and Preshevo, and will mainly test and prove our hypothesis that Serbian is not taught and learned at school at the level it used to be taught and learned in the former YU federation (20 years ago): Albanian students hesitate speaking in Serbian eventhough they understand most of it, their written and oral mistakes are evident, whereas the random questionnaire conducted with the Albanian citizens in the two municipalities of this region shows that spoken Albanian has been largely influenced by Serbian in all linguistic levels, including Syntax and Semantics.
Consequently, two different linguistic processes are going on with the Albanian of this region: the standard Albanian is becoming more or less more influential language on administrative and instituional level, especially with the respondents' aged from 13-19, whereas spoken Albanian population is becoming bilingual in regards to their age: 50 and above. It is interesting to emphasise a fact that questionnaire results differ between two municipalities, too, Bujanovac being more bilingual than Preshevo and Serbian having less or little influence among the Albanian population there.
On the other hand, the geo-political position of this region will be treated in terms of its physical, geographical and mathematical components quality, which to a very high scale determine its geographical position and influence enourmously on its demographic, social, economical, historical and political development. Being a central point of the Balkans, in the contact area between the Morava and Vardar Valley (both of which represent the most important natural corridore joining the Middle and South Europe), and possessing Presheva watershed, which divides the Black Sea and Egean catchment area with a low geographical height 460m, Presheva Valley has become a very important natural corridore, too, known as the primary meridional ox of the Balkans. The influence of such a favourable geo-political position can be of great importance to the economic development of the population of this region (majority of them belonging to the Albanian ethnic group). However, the political crash of different parties interests in this region (being in the triangle between Kosova, Macedonia and other parts of Serbia mainly populated by Serbian ethnic group) could bring to a very difficult political situation which leaves no choice to the local population but migrate and disperse.
Moreover, the geopolitical position of certain region or state represents the most conceptual and constitutive element of geographic position, including natural, economic, political and geographical factors. Although secondary or relative category of geographical position, it involves complex assessment of natural potential, demogeographic processes and contemporary cultural and political realities. Basically this position is based on the analysis of physical-geographical and antropo-geographical factors, and causal links between them, whose changes in geopolitical terms for certain people, region and state often have direct existential consequences. It is focused mainly on impacts of geographic factors in historical and political processes and represents an important factor that determines the development of a region or a state and the possibility of its involvement in the political, economic and other sort of integrations.
Geopolitical position of the Presheva Valley in the context of current political-geographical location is very complex and sensitive. The situation as such has prevailed especially after the 90 's, when wars and the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia returned Serbia into a continental state, without direct access to the sea. However, Serbia maintained its preferential position in the geopolitical scene of the Balkan Peninsula due to its central position in the peninsula and the passage of Corridor X through its territory. Roads and railways of international importance, part of the so-called Corridor X, within the Pan-European Transport Corridors System – (PE Tr C) pass through this important natural corridor. A shorter and more efficient connection between European regions with Mediterranean spaces of Asia, Africa and wider have been realised through it.
Apart from physical and geographical elements, the demographic factor of Presheva Valley represents an important determinant of geopolitical context. Number, density and population structures ,religious and linguistic features, represents quantitative and qualitative characteristics that influence both the geographical and political processes, as well as its geographical position.
Out of the above-mentioned characteristics, the factor of the population, not as a number, but as an ethnic structure with a high degree of homogenity, with the predominance of ethnic Albanian element, territorial continuity with other Albanian ethnic lands, the same religious and linguistic features, panalbanian integration processes in various fields, such as culture, education, science, health (which have started to intensify in the last years and decades) have to be pointed out.
Geopolitical position of the Presheva Valley in the present geo-political circumstances within the ethnic Albanian territories is somewhat handicapped because of the peripheral position in relation to the geographical core of the albanian geoethnical trunk. However, the Corridor X passage and transverse communicative lines, very high homogeneity of the ethnic structure of population, uninterrupted continuity with other Albanian ethnical territories: with Kosova in the west and Western Macedonia in the south, significantly improve its geopolitical position within the Albanian territories in the region.
Such a geopolitical position opens the way to further integration of Albanians into other territories where Albanian population is a dominant one as well as closes its doors to the further integration of this region within the Republic of Serbia. Migration towards neighbouring Albanian territories for better inclusion and integration are evident among Albanians of Presheva Valley, especially for the purpose of education and better job opportunities.
Thus, it can be concluded that in geopolitical and geostrategic terms, Presheva Valley has a great importance because it enables access to the Corridor X, which increases further more the attractiveness of the geopolitical position of the Albanian territories (two transport corridors: Corridor VIII and Corridor X pass through Albanian territories). Knowing the vital importance that communication link has between Kosova and Albania, it has to be worked intensively to improve infrastructure connections with the Presheva Valley, mainly through Konçul Gorge. In this way, Kosova and other Albanian territories in the new geopolitical circumstances, that will follow, will also provide a direct access to Corridor X. This will further increase the attractiveness of the geopolitical position of the Albanian territories in general and Kosovo in particular. The contact with the Albanian lands in the Adriatic and Ionian Sea, on one hand, Corridor VIII, as well as direct access to Corridor X, through Presheva Valley, on the other hand, represent a very important factor for the strengthening of the geopolitical and geostrategic position of Albanian territories, transforming them into a very important factor in the geopolitical scene of the Balkan Peninsula.
However, such a favourable geopolitical position will go in favour of Serbia, too. Having in mind the Serbian population living in Kosovo, distributed in many enclaves and municipalities, it could become a linking bridge for the future cultural and institutional integration of both minotities in respective countries within the umbrella of Soth-Eastern Europe.
Researching Albanian-Italian/Romanian mixed marriages
Rachele BEZZINI (Dublin)
Albanians and Romanians currently represent the second and first immigrant group in Italy. Both these migrations, in the 1990s and 2000s respectively, have been mediatically and politically instrumentalised. The implications of this phenomenon, which led to the stigmatisation of Albanian
and Romanian migrants, have then influenced the subsequent process of integration. The social relations between Albanians, Italians and Romanians have thus been shaped by the discourses of Italophilia, Albanophobia and Romanophobia (King & Mai 2009, Mai 2009), which have articulated reciprocal constructions of identity and alterity and consequently positioned these three groups across interlinked hierarchies and boundaries.
The space in which these social actors interact could be interpreted as a space of integration and interethnicity. In this respect, an emblematic typology of interactive integration and interethnic relationship is constituted by mixed marriages. The social relevance of mixed marriages refers to
the intimate and long-term character of the relation and the correlated meaning of biological reproduction and cultural transmission. In particular, mixed marriages have been considered indicator and agent of integration and also form of boundary negotiation. In fact, on the one side
they would show reduction in intergroup social distance and facilitate a further level of social inclusion; on the other side, they would produce boundary-crossing, blurring, shifts. Through the analysis of Albanian mixed marriages, this study intends to investigate interactions and
identifications within minority-majority and minority-minority relationships and so discover forms and structures of mixedness between Albanians, Italians, Romanians at the confluence of interethnicity and integration.
EU-isation de la question des minorités: Paradoxes et limites
Sandra GAJIĆ (Bordeaux)
Avec la volonté des pays d'Europe centrale et orientale de rejoindre la famille européenne, il y a eu une EU-isation de la question des minorités, qui était jusqu'à lors traitée dans le cadre du Conseil de l'Europe, des Nations Unies... L'Union européenne a dû repenser sa pratique de la conditionnalité en matière d'adhésion. Lors du conseil européen de Copenhague des 21 et 22 juin 1993, les chefs d'Etats et de gouvernement ont défini les critères essentiels de la conditionnalité démocratique. Désormais, le critère politique fait référence à la présence d'institutions stables garantissant la démocratie, la primauté du droit, les droits de l'homme et le respect des minorités.
Par conséquent, pour adhérer à l'Union européenne, les Etats candidats doivent respecter les droits des minorités alors même que certains Etats membres comme la France ou la Grèce n'ont pas reconnu de droits spécifiques aux minorités dans leur législation respective. Au regard de cette situation paradoxale, l'UE peut-elle vraiment faciliter l'intégration des minorités ?
La conditionnalité démocratique est devenue le principal instrument qui permet de faire respecter le droit des minorités dans les Etats candidats et potentiellement candidats. Les progrès de ces derniers (la Serbie, le Monténégro...) sont évalués tous les ans par la Commission européenne à travers les critères politiques, économiques et les 35 chapitres de l'acquis communautaire. Ainsi, depuis 2000 et le rapprochement de la Serbie avec l'UE, d'importantes lois favorables aux personnes issues des minorités nationales ont été adoptés .
Malgré les évolutions positives dans les législations des pays candidats, la conditionnalité démocratique est sujette à critique, notamment car il y a des incohérences dans l'appréciation des progrès réalisées par les Etats candidats. En comparant les différents rapports annuels de la Commission européenne, il y a des différences manifestes dans la manière dont les droits des minorités sont pris en compte (par exemple les minorités nationales ayant leur « Etat mère » dans l'UE sont avantagées). Cette souplesse permet une instrumentalisation qui ne va pas dans le sens d'une meilleure protection des droits fondamentaux.
L'Union européenne peut être aussi à l'origine de la stigmatisation de certaines minorités. Les citoyens de Serbie, du Monténégro et de l'Ancienne République yougoslave de Macédoine ont obtenu en décembre 2009, le droit de voyager sans visa dans l'espace Schengen. Mais l'afflux des demandes d'asiles a conduit la Commission européenne à prier les Etats de prendre des mesures pour stopper les demandeurs qui sont le plus souvent des Roms. Sous la pression de l'UE, les gouvernements ont renforcé le contrôle des frontières qui se sont avérés en pratique discriminatoire. Ainsi, le 17 octobre 2010 au poste de frontière de Presevo, une dizaine de Roms ayant la nationalité macédonienne n'ont pas été autorisés à entrer sur le territoire serbe.
Enfin, la pression européenne ne semble jamais aussi forte que durant le processus d'accession, que se passe-t-il pour les minorités une fois que l'Etat candidat devient membre de l'Union européenne ?
L'ethnicité des Aroumains, dans les récits des voyageurs français dans les Balkans, 1800-1860
Vladimir CREŢULESCU (Bucarest)
Le procès d'intégration européenne a mis à jour le problème des minorités culturelles et ethniques, dont le droit à l'identité nécessite une protection et une attention spéciale. C'est dans ce contexte que nous encadrons notre discussion sur l'identité aroumaine.
Les Aroumains appartiennent à la branche Est-Européenne des populations néolatines – un group comprenant aussi les Istroroumains, les Méglénoroumains, et les Roumains nord-danubiens. Les foyers des Aroumains se trouvent parsemés à travers le territoire de plusieurs Etats Balkaniques, notamment au Nord de la Grèce, en Albanie, et en F.Y.R.O.M. Largement dépourvue de protection culturelle, cette population est maintenant, presque à tout endroit, en cours d'assimilation.
Ceci dit, nous ne nous intéressons pas à la forme présente de l'identité Aroumaine, mais à celle de la première moitié du XIX siècle. En portant notre regard sur une époque aussi reculée, nous voudrons surprendre l'ethnos Aroumain dans sa forme pré-nationale – à savoir, avant la manifestation des propagandes nationales balkaniques en Macédoine et en Albanie Ottomanes.
En fait, nous proposons un saisit de l'identité ethnique par le bas, avant la polarisation nationaliste (pro-Roumaine ou pro-Grecque) des communautés Aroumaines. Malheureusement, nous ne disposons pas de sources primaires sur l'ethnicité des Aroumains ordinaires avant 1860. Les peux récits disponibles contenant des informations sur ce sujet nous viennent des voyageurs étrangers ayant traversé les Balkans à l'époque. En occurrence, les plus riches récits appartiennent aux voyageurs Français : des figures tant qu'Ami Boué, Leon Heuzey, Esprit-Marie Cousinéry, ou (notamment) François-Charles de Pouqueville.
En interrogeant ces sources indirectes, nous sommes censés garder à l'esprit la distinction opérée par l'école Française de psychosociologie (Serge Moscovici, Sylvaine Marandon, Denise Jodelet et. al.), entre les hétéro-images (les représentations d'un peuple sur un autre) et les auto-images (les représentations d'un peuple sur soi-même). Selon Mme Marandon, les hétéro-images nous disent plus sur l'identité ethno-nationale de l'observateur que sur l'identité du peuple observé. De ce fait, ce sont les auto-images des Aroumains mêmes qui nous intéressent, plutôt que les opinions et interprétations que les voyageurs Français émettent à l'égard de cette population. Par conséquent, notre lecture des récits de voyage va se concentrer sur les quelques éléments porteurs d'auto-images Aroumaines. Notamment :
- Sur les passages où les voyageurs colportent ce que les Aroumains disent sur leur propre identité ;
- Sur les fragments de folklore aroumain (chansons, poèmes populaires, etc.) que les voyageurs reproduisent.
Cette approche nous permettra, en fin de compte, de surprendre les principales articulations identitaires de l'ethnos aroumain, telles qu'elles se présentaient aux premières décennies du « Siècle des Nations ».
Session: Vision of European Integration vs. the Image of Europe in the Balkans. The Historical and Educational Discourse/La vision de l'intégration européenne versus l'image de l'Europe dans les Balkans. Le discours historique et éducatif
Organizers: Jolanta SUJECKA, Jędrzej PASZKIEWICZ
The unfulfilled dream of a common Balkan history schoolbook in Greece
Alexandra IOANNIDOU (Athens)
The paper aims at presenting the discussions in Greece about the project of a common Balkan history (school)book. What will be of central interest in this context are on the one hand the negative reactions of the ultra rightist circles and on the other, the criticism which was exercised by rather serious historians and the attempts to stop the whole project. Throughout the decade of the 2000's debates were taking place about the necessity and the possibility of a common narrative on history of the Balkan region, during which one could observe the whole spectrum of nationalist argumentation, combined with serious propagandist attacks against the historians who proposed the project. In this paper we will juxtapose the populist argumentation to the so to say "serious" one and comment on their impact and consequences in Greek society.
The idea of Southeast Europe in the context of using of the past: Integrating "old Serbia" in the geography of Europe: From Ami Boué to Jovan Cvijić
Bogdan TRIFUNOVIĆ (Warsaw)
This paper will address development of the discourse of Old Serbia within the context of the European geography and cartography of the 19th century. The discourse of Old Serbia in its spatial dimension covered the administrative territories of the Ottoman vilayets Kosovo, Monastir and Salonica in the late 19th century, which in the Serbian collective memory were carved as the lands of Serbian medieval state of the Nemanjić dynasty in the 13th and 14th century. We will investigate development of the notion of both the term and territory of Old Serbia as a part of the Serbian national ideology until the First World War. This notion will be analyzed in the geographical maps of the region of the Balkans produced in the 19th and early 20th century. Prominent names of our analysis are geographers and cartographers Ami Boué, Jovan Bugarski, Heinrich Kiepert, Jovan Cvijić and others, who were involved in the process of building of the knowledge about the geography of the Balkans in Europe and beyond, but who also dealt with the specific Serbian discourse of Old Serbia, or against it, in their geographical works and maps.
We will also investigate the oldest official and public use of the term (in map of the Principality of Serbia by Jovan Bugarski, 1845), showing at the same time that historiography wrongly attributed the first use of the term in its discursive context to Ami Boué and his works from the 1830s. We will prove that Ami Boué before 1850s did not know about the territory of Old Serbia in the context of ideological and topographical meaning that Serbian national discourse attached to the term, but that he adopted this notion from the Serbian authors (Jovan Bugarski, Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Gedeon Josif Jurišić) and their works published in the period 1845-1852.
The end of the Albanian transition, 24 years after: Its implications for EU integration and for the image of Europe in the Balkans
Guido FRANZINETTI (Alessandria)
This paper is based on the assumption that, following the elections of 2013 (won by the coalition led by the Socialist Party) Albania has finally completed its Transition. The first part of the paper includes a brief overview of the peculiarities of the 1991-92 Albanian Revolution and the subsequent post-Communist system. The second part of the paper discusses the factors which have contributed to the end of this Long Transition (1992-2013). The final part discusses the future prospects of Albanian society.
Bulgaria troughout the 20th century – between two wars, between Europe and Eurasia
Ivan HRISTOV (Sofia)
After losing the First World War and suffering what is known as the "Second National Catastrophe" the sense of disappointment with Europe was growing ever stronger in Bulgaria. It turned out that the country, which had been a German ally during the war, was incapable of reaching its national ideal. In the period between the two World Wars, a turbulent search for the path to a new national identity raged. The questions were raised: Who are we? Where do we come from? Where are we going? On the one hand, Pan-Germanism was revived, on the other hand, Pan-Slavism. Oswald Spengler wrote his work The Decline of the West and The Decline of Europe. On the one hand, the idea arose for a united states of Europe, while on the other hand, Eurasianism. Bulgaria found itself torn between two worlds – that of the East and the West. During this period, a new opposition also appeared – between capitalism and communism. And while Filippo Tommaso Marinetti invented his visions of the future, Nikolai Berdyaev talked about a return to a New Middle Ages. This paper attempts to offer an analysis of these processes in their historical, cultural and literary aspects, caught on the border between two centuries, between Europe and Eurasia, before Bulgaria definitively took the path of communism.
Vision of Europe in the socio-political discourse of Franjo Tudjman's Croatia, 1991-1999
Jędrzej PASZKIEWICZ (Poznan)
The paper is dealing with the discursive process through which Croatia framed its so-called "return to Europe" throughout the 1990s. The author examines how Croatian socio-political elite sought recognition as belonging to Europe, or Central Europe, by defining Croatian national identity in a strict opposition to Balkan or Yugoslav ones.
The post-communist government which came into power after first democratic elections in 1990, made use of pre-communist historical-national narratives to legitimize itself and unify all ethnic Croats up against the military threat. The official Croatian attitude towards Europe had idiosyncratic character, focusing on national and historical connotations. Particular myths, such as the Antemurale Christianitatis (Ramparts of Christendom) or Austro-Hungarian heritage, were used to assert an essentially Western character for the Croats in contrast to an orientalized, Balkan 'others'. Even though since the beginning of the 1990s Croatian political elites had declaring a desire to join the European Union (EU) as the visible symbol of the so called Europeanization process, a nationalist and isolationist attitude dominated both in political discourse and intellectual debate. Europe was rather associated with the ontological values dedicated to the Western civilization than with such principles as democratization or protection of human and minority rights, promoted by the EU.
In order to show main directions within the Croatian public discourse, the analysis method has been used, focusing on the speeches and works of section of politician, scholars, journalists, representing ruling and opposition political environments. They reflect different positions in the discourse and should be examined separately from a simple divisions as Eurosceptic and Euro-optymist authors.
The idea of European state in 19th century and the concept of "identity" in the writings of Krste P. Misirkov
Jolanta SUJECKA (Warsaw)
In my presentation I would like to illustrate the concept of Identity in Krste P. Misirkov's writings by analyzing of the semantic of the terms natsionalnost and Macedonia in the two different periods of his biography. Both terms are strongly depend from the image of European state in his thought.
The first illustration is connected with the very beginning of 20th century and Misirkov's work On Macedonian matters from 1903.The other coms from the Bulgarian period of his life, the articles from 1923 about Macedonia as the Switzerland of the Balkans , and the Ido project for the Macedonians from 1924. In both periods of his life Misirkov try to include the Identity of Macedonians in the European outline from his time.
The image of Europe vs. the politics of memory in Croatia: Goli otok as an object of discussion
Katarzyna TACZYŃSKA (Torun)
The subject of my paper concerns the camp for political prisoners established in 1949 in Yugoslavia on the island Goli otok. The camp theme had been almost nonexistent in public discourse till the 80s of the last century. Real changes and developments in discussion concerning this part of the postwar Yugoslavian history occurred only after Tito's death.
The primary objectives of my paper are to show that documentaries speaking about the camp Goli otok constitute a significant contemporary space for reflection, and to present how the history of Goli otok is remembered and depicted in the films. I would like to pay special attention to the attempt at discovering how the memory is narrated in documentary films produced in Croatia.
European integration and the issue of autocephaly. Balkan and Ukrainian illustration
Konrad KUCZARA (Warsaw)
Some of the Balkan countries, such as Greece, Bulgaria and Romania are members of the European Union. Today, Ukraine fights for its place in Europe. Ukrainians, aware of their national identity, are aiming for integration with Europe. The road to achieve this remains a long one, but the problem of autocephaly of the Church is one of the most important issues here.
In Ukraine there are three Orthodox Churches: Ukrainian Orthodox Church, which has the status of autonomous Church belonging to the Moscow Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. The first of these is a canonical Church. It is recognized by all Orthodox Churches . The other two have the status of non-canonical Orthodox Churches. They remain in schism with other local Churches.
In January 1990, in accordance with the decision of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church, the Ukrainian dioceses formed a separate exarchate, which retained independence in administrative matters under an equivalent name of Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate. Under the influence of the Act of Independence of Ukraine of August 1991 at the Council of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscovian Patriarchate, a decision was adopted on the autocephaly of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. According to Apostolic Orthodox Canon XXXIV (political independence should entail the independence of the Church). Russian Orthodox Church refused to give Kyiv autocephaly.
It should be noted that, despite the fact that the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate does not work legally in terms of canon law, it continues to developed in Ukraine and also beyond its borders, eg . the metropolis of Western Europe and Canada, and three dioceses in Russia are functioning.
Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate is recognized by other non-canonical Orthodox community. Orthodox Church remains in communion with the Macedonian Orthodox Church, autocephaly of which has not been recognized by Serbian Patriarchate and the Church of the true Orthodox Christians of Greece called Old Calendarists. Non-canonical communities in Ukraine and Macedonia have a national character and are closely linked with the authorities. Ukrainian Orthodox Church supports the integration of Ukraine into the European Union, and also works in the field of ecumenical co-operation with the Ukrainian Greek Catholics.
Macedonian Orthodox Church by its autocephaly also wants to mark the place of the Macedonian nation in Europe. The Greek Orthodox Church fought in a similar way for their place in Europe, and it announced its autocephaly in 1833. It remained in exarchate with the Patriarchate of Constantinople until 1850. The Bulgarian Church lost its autocephaly in 1393. In 1870, the Ottomans allowed for the renewal of the Bulgarian national church, as an autonomous Exarchate. This gave rise to the schism with the Patriarchate of Constantinople. This state of affairs lasted until 1945.
Autocephaly gave and continues to give the possibility of self-determination for the Church. I think that the search to achieve autocephaly is a sign of national awareness of the Orthodox community and its place in Europe.
How integration with Europe has begun? First cases of westernization of the Balkan popular literature
Krzysztof USAKIEWICZ (Warsaw)
The Byzantine and Ottoman heritage of the Balkans is usually emphasised. Meanwhile, some impacts from the Western Europe on the Balkan culture cannot be denied and it can be easily proved on the example of the Balkan popular literature. It has adapted many literary genres until the end of 19th century, a Western adventure novel can be found amongst them as well. However, translations / adaptations of Daniel Defoe's or Alexandre Dumas' works do not seem to be the first cases of this westernization.
In my paper I would like to focus on a similar process – presenting the Balkans as a borderland of Oriental, Slavia Orthodoxa and Western cultures – which can be observable on the example of three other works: Alexander Romance, Trojan War and Aesop's Fables. In the early modern epoch, at the same time when these works were widespread through the Balkan territory, they used to be willingly read in the Western Europe. Presumably, Dalmatia was a place where Western and Balkan variants of these works were meeting and affecting each other.
In my presentation I am going to answer a question how to describe this cultural exchange and how strong was a Western influence on the Balkan popular literature. Furthermore, it should be analysed what are the differences between Western and Balkans variants of the same popular literature works. I would like also to take into consideration which elements the Balkan authors decided to borrow or adapt from the Western culture, and which one to reject.
Keywords: popular literature, Alexander Romance, Trojan War, Aesop's Fables
The image of Europe in the (contemporary) Kosovo political discourse
Marzena MACIULEWICZ (Warsaw)
Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008 which makes it the youngest political structure in Europe. The country's current status is a result of influences of main political actors among whom the European Union performs an important role. Therefore, it is not surprising that nowadays in Kosovo (as well as in other Balkan countries) Europe is perceived mainly from the political perspective. The image of Europe seems to be dominated by the political organization of the European Union, its demands, promises and values. Through its policy, the European Union defines the region to which Kosovo belongs as Western Balkans, thus strengthening specific, unequal relations between the two parts of Europe itself. As a result, young Kosovo's political discourse seems to be dominated by EU-related issues as well as its domestic policy is influenced by EU. The aim of the paper is to describe political practices, presenting the role of political actors and significant processes on an example of selected main events from contemporary Kosovo's political scene. Political practices are perceived as actions of participants of political discourse defined by Teun van Dijk as political actors participating in governing, ruling, legislating, protesting, dissenting, negotiating, voting, etc. These particular practices both reflect and create the image of Europe in contemporary Kosovo's political discourse.
Keywords: Europe, European Union, political discourse, political practices, Kosovo, Balkans
Serbia and the European Union - essential problems of the integration process in the last decade
Mirella KORZENIEWSKA-WISZNIEWSKA (Kraków)
After changes in 2000 Serbia took the unequivocal direction towards integration with European Union. First prime minister after October changes 2000 – Zoran Đinđić started intensive reforms at once, what was stopped by his tragic death in March 2003. Following politicians, with Boris Tadić ahead, created themselves as continuators of his political though, but they have faced with the challenge of fundamental economic and political transformations. Serbia – among all ex-Yugoslav countries – have faced the challenge of greatest and most complicated problems, which held up progress of the reforms. There were i. a. the question of separation of state community with Montenegro, what changed the geopolitical meaning of Serbian country. The next was separatist problem with Kosovo and subsequently, after 2008, relations with Priština. Another problems were: cooperation with International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and prosecution of war criminals, as well as the regional cooperation. EU criticized too sluggish progress of changes but also imposed the next requirements (connected mostly with Kosovo question), what conditioned the process of accession. More than decade Serbia is trying to reconcile its EU' s aspiration and the domestic politics. The Author will try to answer how these problems influence the accession process but also how this process depends only on Serbia.
Keywords: Serbia after 2000, Serbia and European Union, Serbia after Milosevic, Serbian current policy, Serbian domestic politics, Serbia and ICTY.
The European integration vs. the idea of the creation of Balkan Entente in the daily "Politika"
Paweł MICHALAK (Poznan)
Changes in the geopolitical map of Europe arising from the decisions of the Versailles conference were without no doubts some kind of an earthquake. With the end of the Great War in areas previously occupied by the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire eight new countries were established. Three empires collapsed, burying in its ruins the oldest ruling dynasties in Europe - the Ottomans, Romanovs and the Habsburgs. The defeated Central Powers had been recognized as the only guilty of war, obliged to bear the costs of the conflict and pay war reparations. It is not a surprise that Germany, Hungary, Bulgaria almost automatically became staunch enemies of the political system formed after 1918. Despite the end of the war the political situation was still uncertain. In such circumstances the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created.
Because it was one of the fruits of the post-war peace treaties, one of the main guidelines of the Yugoslav foreign policy was to oversee the implementation of all agreed demands. Therefore, king Alexander spoke in favor of maintaining the status quo and struggle with the revisionist demands of the defeated countries. This kind of antirevisionist policy approached Kingdom S.C.S. to the Czechoslovakia and Romania, with which it shared a common fear of revisionist inclinations of Hungary and – in the case of Romania – also Bulgaria. The cooperation of these three countries had resulted in the creation of a block of the Little Entente, which perfectly fitted into a French assumptions of the creation of anti-Bolshevik "cordon sanitaire". Also the idea of the creation of the so-called Balkan Entente assumed the protection and maintenance of the political status quo. Ensuring the protection of the interests of the Balkan states, it matched with the increasingly popular concept of collective security, expressed, among others, in Briand-Kellogg Pact (1929). The Balkan Pact, finally agreed on 4th of February 1934, envisaged cooperation in the international arena and the protection of the signatories interests.
As it could be seen, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, considering directives of its foreign policy did not exclude possibility of closer cooperation with another countries. It is worth to note, that conceptions of cooperation of European countries were very popular across the whole Europe. These issues were also widely commented by the Yugoslav society. One of the biggest and most important Yugoslav daily newspaper – Politika – devoted them a lot of space. The way of publishing of these information seems to be worthy of a deeper analysis, because - as it could be supposed - it shows more or less the point of view of the Yugoslav political circles, especially after 6th of January 1929, when king Aleksander proclaimed dictatorship, and the press came under the strict supervision of the ruler.
The main aim of the author is to analyze these publications, appearing during the reign of king Aleksander, so in the years 1921-1934, and an attempt to show whether and how the point of view of the Yugoslav elites towards the ideas of pan-European cooperation and the need for cooperation at regional level, both within the Little Entente, as well as the Balkan Entente, was changing. Particularly strong emphasis was put on publications from the period of 1929 - 1934, when king Aleksander became the main creator of the Yugoslav foreign policy.
The idea of Europe in the mirror of the Balkans vs. the image of France in the Balkans during the Napoleonic era
Wojciech SAJKOWSKI (Poznan)
The objective of the article consists of the analysis of Balkan peoples depiction in French literature of the late 18th century and the beginning of 19th century in a broader context of the Balkans concept evolution. The analysis, which will concern mostly the sources which emergence was connected (directly or indirectly) with the French governance over Illyrian Provinces (1809-1813), will contribute to the determination of an unfamiliar problem of the influence of French literature on Western European view of Balkan peoples. The article will elaborate the following research problems:
- the contribution of French administration to extending the factual resources on the peoples inhabiting the area of Illyrian Provinces
- French colonial experience and the representation of the inhabitants of Illyrian Provinces
- the representations of the peoples inhabiting Illyrian Provinces and the Orient
- the anthropology and historiography of the French Enlightenment and the image of the
inhabitants of Illyrian Provinces
- the customs of the peoples inhabiting Illyrian Provinces in the context of the romantic
fascination with the Slavdom
The investigation will constitute an important contribution to the general context of how the notion of "Balkans" emerged, and how the French political interest in South-Eastern Europe resulted with the new perception of the people of this part of the continent. The analysis of the specific problem will help to understand the nature of the division between the East and the West of Europe.
Session: Lingua-Cultural and Socio-Historical Changes in South-East Europe during the last 25 Years / Changements linguistic, culturels et socio-historiques en Europe du Sud-Est au cours des 25 dernières années
Organizers: Konstantin NIKIFOROV, Irina SEDAKOVA
The actional code of the healers' practice among the Albanian and Gagauzian population of Ukraine (Azov sea region): Changing popular medicine 1991-2015
Aleksander NOVIK (Saint Petersburg)
There are three villages in Ukraine (the region of Azov Sea, Zaporizh'a district) inhabited by the mixed Albanian and Gagauzian ethnic groups: Gammovka, Devninskoye and Georgiyevka founded in 1861-1862.
Up to nowadays a visit to people who have a special "knowledge" how to cure is a traditional way to deal with children and adults. Healing and witchcraft skills are mostly passed on from women to women. Men have rarely been involved in such practice.
There are three main means used by healers for treating people for an illness. The first mean is a treating with "tchivit" (ma çivit) - a solid chalk substance with a dark blue colour. Moreover the word "tchivit" also means ʻdark blueʼ in this Albanian lect. Using this chalk was the most popular way of treatment among Albanian healers. The important part of the treatment was a "whispering" special speech formulas. This speech procedure was accompanied by spotting a patient's body with "tchivit".
Using of wax is the second way of treatment. This alternative way is considered to be more affective. Healers resorted to the help of wax in the case when "whispering" and "tchivit" were useless. Technically the process of healing by wax was organised in different ways. But most often the melted wax was poured out to the cold water and after that set.
The third mean to cure is to strew with flour. Strewing with flour on an oven door, healers managed to find a cause of illness and put a person on medication. Also a knife was an important tool to get over an illness.
The specific character of the polyethnic region is reflected in the healers' practice: Albanians, Gagauzians, Russians, Ukrainians, Bulgarians and Greeks share with each other this territory. Nevertheless we can easily find some Balkan and Turk motifs in the Albanian and Gagauzian traditional rites and in their lexicon as well, since they use their native languages as professional slangs.
Important local feature of popular medicine is using of specific items (brezi i nuses ʻsilver plated belt for wedding ceremonyʼ etc.) which were bought during the γaxh (ʻvisitʼ) in Holy Lands (Jerusalem, Palestine; Afon, Greece) in the XIX – beginning of the XX century.
Last years, after disintegration of the former Soviet Union and in the period of independent Ukraine (1991 – nowadays) the healers' practice in the Albanian settlements of Ukraine continues old Balkan traditions and has innovations and new forms determinated by cultural and social contacts with other ethnic groups. These processes can be characterized like global information influence in new view – the view of changing but very strong tradition.
Aromanian language in Prespa region (FYR Macedonia) today
Anastasia MAKAROVA (Saint Petersburg)
Daria KONIOR (Saint Petersburg)
Prespa-Bitolza region has played a key role in the romanization of the Balkan Peninsula since the early Middle Ages, as the mountains in between Resen and Bitola were traversed by the most important Roman road called Via Egnatia. The earliest historical evidence of the Aromanian/Vlach presence in Prespa dates back to 976. The Vlach villages located in the region of Pelister mountain are most likely among the most ancient Aromanian settlements in the territory of FYR Macedonia (Астеорис 2013).
Aromanian population from Gorna Prespa was concentrated in the town of Resen and in village Yankovec. Population censuses conducted in the XX century make it possible to trace how the number of people declaring themselves as Aromanians (Jовановски 2005) has been gradually reducing. According to 2005 census data, Resen and Yankovec were home to 18 Aromanians. In 2014, during our first expedition to the region of Gorna Prespa, we found that in fact, there are only two Aromanian-speaking families left in Resen and Yankovec, therefore their dialect, which has not been described yet, is now at risk of disappearing.
As it would be expected, our consultant who speaks Aromanian better than other Resen Vlachs, did not show the full language proficiency given the fact that the only domain where she is able to use Aromanian now is communication within her family. Interviews with this woman show us cases of both lexical ("Zetot era u custume, custume s'băga, naročno se adra te ța dzuă. Svečenо!") and grammatical ("AvƐa multă lumea, ș-di partea__Nicu") interference caused by Macedonian influence.
At the moment, our goal is describe - as exhaustively as it is possible - various aspects of Prespa Aromanians' language based on the data that will be received during the further expeditions to this region.
On the language of chemistry - local and regional problems
Bojan ŠOPTRAJANOV (Skopje)
The language of chemistry consists of symbols, words and expressions. The symbols of the chemical elements are the most common ones in practically any text in chemistry, the words denote chemical entities and chemical properties while the expressions are used to explain the meaning of the characteristic words.
The chemical symbols are internationally agreed and are written in the same way in any language and independent of the script (Latin, Cyrillic, Arabic or any other).
Among the words characteristic for chemistry, the most important are those denoting the basic units of matter (e.g. atoms, molecules etc.), the general or specific forms of matter and, of course, the chemical names of substances.
The characteristic expressions, as already pointed out, are needed to give the meaning of words, either characteristic for chemistry (such as chemical names) or more general.
Although the language of chemistry tends to be universal in character, local terms are used and it is the aim of this communication to point out to problems (local, regional or wider) in this field and, when possible, to suggest the way to improve the present situation.
Intégrations européennes et changements linguistiques dans les pays en Europe du Sud-Est
Hristina ANDONOVSKA (Skopje)
L'intégration à l'Union européenne, facteur clé de la politique extérieure dеs pays en Europe du Sud-Est, a aussi son reflet dans la langue. Il s'agit de l'apparition de nouveaux termes dans le fonds linguistique, à savoir la création d'Eurolect. Le processus de traduction de la législation européenne, qui couvre différents domaines de la société, représente un choix d'une nouvelle terminologie dans la langue : avec des emprunts et des adaptations de termes et phrases étrangers ou encore avec l'activation de possibilités de derivation de notre propre langue. À travers des exemples de traduction de la législation européenne, ainsi que des versions du thésaurus multilingue Eurovoc, nous nous concentrerons sur le reflet de l'intégration européenne dans les langues des pays en Europe du Sud-Est.
Mots-clés : intégrations européennes, Eurolect, législation européenne, Eurovoc, Europe du Sud-Est
Bulgarian vs. Russian Christian Orthodox festive year in the 21st century
Irina SEDAKOVA (Moscow)
Modern Bulgarian Christian Orthodox ritual year as compared to the Russian Orthodox festive calendar has never been thoroughly studied. Meanwhile in spite of the basic similarities in the major feasts, commemorative complexes, cults of the saints, and the entire language of the liturgies there are many drastic differences on all the levels. Some of the Bulgarian national specific features in the church festivals and practices are not documented in Russia and can be attested as "Balkanisms", as they are typical for modern Greek, Romanian, Albanian ones.
In my presentation, I will analyze the most significant diversification and dwell on the reasons for this. The Bulgarian–Russian dissimilarities can be explained by temporal, spatial, geographical, linguistic, historical and political, etc. reasons.
In the core of my paper there will be the following dissimilarities and interpretation of the reasons and consequences:
1. Gregorian style in Bulgarian Church (with some meaningful exceptions and modifications, like St George's day) vs Julian style in the Russian Church.
2. Hierarchy of the greater and smaller feasts, various accents and the ritual practice in the celebrating of major feasts (Theophany, Whitsun, etc.).
3. Different popularity of the same saints and dissimilarity of the powers ascribed to them. In Bulgaria, their "specification" occasionally is explained by the Balkan language unity and common folk etymology.
4. The system of celebrating the name days (Bulgarian Palm Sunday as the name day for the people whose given name has an idea of flora and vegetation). This fact leads us towards a deeper dissimilarity in the correlation of a name with the corresponding saint (angel), the rituals of name giving and christening in Bulgaria and Russia.
5. Modern development of veneration of some saints (Russian Sts Peter and Fevronia, St Matrona) and its influence on the run of the religious and civil festive year.
A detailed case study of Whitsun church practice and commemorative activity in Bulgaria and Russia, based on the field data collected in 2010-2014 will exemplify some dissimilarities and the reasons for them.
Ethnic changes in the Balkans at the end of the 20th century
Konstantin NIKIFOROV (Moscow)
During the whole twentieth century the trend towards monoethnicity prevails in the Balkans. Multinational states have disintegrated. Regional ethnic minorities – the Jewish and German communities have disappeared. All the attempts to form a civil nation have failed. Constructions of the "complex ethnic groups", in particular, creation of Yugoslavian nation ended in vain. On the contrary, new ethnic groups - Macedonians, Bosnians, Montenegrins and new languages - have appeared. By the end of the century a similar trend becomes even more obvious and decisive. East Europe turns into a more ethnically homogeneous region. This trend significantly differs from the situation in the Eastern of the Western Europe, where the multi-ethnic societies has markedly increased, especially in the post-war period. It even spawned ideological justification of this process in the form of the concept of multiculturalism.
Gorans in Kosovo - current lingua-cultural changes
Krasimira KOLEVA (Shumen)
Significant social changes are taking place in the western Balkans. These changes are having a great effect on the multiethnic linguistic and cultural situation. Convergent and divergent processes are typical for the Balkans and can be compared with one another in different parts of the area. In Kosovo they are outstripping their description. The object for research – the Kosovska Gora – have so far been neglected by complex scholarly projects and, judging by the data, the area has rarely been counted as part of the Gora. It is a complex and dynamic contact zone and the resources of the research with which we are familiar are inadequate, since they do not employ an interdisciplinary approach. Our point of departure was the information in the literature. Then we conducted a comprehensive excursion during the last years. There followed specialized research projects, working with informants from the entire sociolinguistic spectrum. The dialect of Gora is treated here as a Balkan-Slavonic sociocultural phenomenon. The mentality of homo balcanicus is encoded in the language of this sociocultural phenomenon.
Traditional practice of house-building in contact areas of Central Asia, Southern Caucasus and Southern Balkans
Lusine GUSCHIAN (Saint Petersburg)
Valentina FEDCHENKO (Saint Petersburg)
It is well-known that the house-building, being one of the most archaic elements of tradition, is an important factor of culture. Our field research, conducted in different contact areas with nomadic and sedentary populations (in the Southern Balkans, Southern Caucasus and Central Asia, in particular with Tsakonian, Azerbaijani and Kyrgyz populations), have revealed that the practice of using houses, built by representatives of neighboring cultures, exists in these areas, while the nomadic population does not possess the house-building skills or has got them only recently. The fact of living in houses, built by neighbors, is often hidden by the present residents of the buildings.
Our study has been triggered by the following concerns about our field material:
• the residents of the areas under study do not remember how their family obtained their house, and do not preserve any narratives about the builder or founder of the house;
• a cattle breeding population lives in stationary houses, and in some cases even in two-storey mansions;
• there is no vocabulary related to house-building and architectural elements of building in their language and folklore.
In order to clarify the house-building tradition in the areas mentioned above, a comparative historical analysis has been conducted. It includes a study of housing complexes and a linguistic analysis of the relevant vocabulary in the languages of the area. Our study traces back the stages of the housing tradition development, as well as the main changes in the economic activity of the nomadic population of these areas.
The material collected has been analyzed taking into account the role of the state in forming the house-building practice.
The role of ethnicity in the Western Balkans during the last 25 years
Marina MARTYNOVA (Moscow)
"Mixed" population is the general characteristic of the wider area of Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe, and particularly of the Balkans. The different characteristics, the historical circumstances of migrations, the overlapping of cultures and the ethnic groups, the multicultural and multi-confessional nature of the society of the Western Balkans can just confirm that no ethnic community in this area is an island, but a part of the whole with its distinctive place based on its ethnic origin, tradition, language and other specific features. Ethnic features of the Balkan people come from historical heritage, and are conditioned by natural surroundings. From the time immemorial, there have been many internal connections of the Slav tribes, later ethnic groups with folk groups and peoples in their surroundings. Balkan people have often shared common faith and ways of development from the times of setting on the Balkan Peninsula until now.
The collapse of Socialistic Yugoslavia introduced principally new trends to the cultural situation in the Balkans. These trends are of special importance for mutual appraisal of contacting peoples and the cultural distance existing between them. During the last two decades, the role of ethnic factor increased immensely. The cultural differences are manipulated and emphasized in every possible way. High orientation in favor of reviving ethnic values of culture is typical for all countries of the Western Balkans.
Multiculturalism means the richness of cultural traditions and variety of religious and cultural experiences. But "ethnic revival" growing of nationalism, ethnic tensions and the process of building "nation states" caused the homogenization of ethnic structure in all the post-socialist states and in the Western Balkans especially. Traditional culture became one of the basic symbols of ethnicity. But mixture of different cultures so typical for the Balkans before is not popular here anymore. Every ethnic group is taking care about its own culture, picking out its core and isolating it from the influences of neighbors.
The ethnic kaleidoscope is very much affected by resent changes of borders and political structures which the area susceptible to further fragmentation. Many processes, events, and situations, inherited or recently produced, make the region very sensitive to any future breaks and fragmentations.
Towards the study of Slavic speaking urban minorities in Albania
Maxim MAKARTSEV (Moscow)
The Slavic dialectology has provided a good picture of Slavic dialects in the border zones of Albania that adjoin the corresponding "umbrella" dialectal regions: the Albanian part of Gora continues the Torlak area, Pole and Goloborda continue Debar dialects, Albanian Prespa shares common traits with the dialects of Macedonian Prespa, Vërnik continues Aegean Macedonian dialects etc. Without going into further details I would like only to refer to Kl. Steinke and Xh. Ylli's series of descriptions of Slavic dialects in Albania ("Die slavischen Minderheiten in Albanien") that includes a full-length bibliography on the topic.
However, the presence of huge Slavic communities in Albanian cities inside the country is somehow out of sight of the publications I am acquainted with. In several of them it is noticed that Slavs live in big Albanian cities such as Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Korcha, Fier and others, but nothing more than a little notice is given.
The Slavic communities in the Albanian cities are heterogenous and come from different regions. These groups differ in size, but all of them may be described as hidden minorities, almost unknown not only to the authorities, but to the academic circles of the "umbrella countries" as well. They also are a source of data on new language contacts on the Balkans: not only contacts between two or more Slavic dialects that originally do not border, but potentially with Balkan dialects Slavs do not have direct contact with (e.g. Cham Albanian).
In my presentation I am comparing two of such groups: the decsendants of migrants from Novi Pazar region in nowadays Southern Serbia that now live in Fier and the vicinity and the migrants from Goloborda in Elbasan.
Session: European Integration and Muslim Communities in Western and South-East Europe: Challenges and Prospects/ L'Intégration européenne et les communautés musulmanes en Europe Occidentale et dans le Sud-Est européen: défis et perspectives
Organizers: Konstantinos GOGOS, Amikam NACHMANI
Muslim cultural heritage in Bulgaria: Preservation, conservation and socialization during the European Integration Process, 1990s-2014
Georgeta NAZARSKA (Sofia)
This paper deals with the conservation, preservation and socialization of tangible and intangible cultural heritage of Muslims in Bulgaria during the accession of Bulgaria to the structures of the CoE and the EU (1990s-2014). This process is related to political, economic, social and cultural transformations that significantly affect minority cultural heritage and in particular Muslim cultural heritage in the country.
Basic approach in the paper is the viewpoint of Cultural Heritage Science. Using the method of analysis of public policies through best practices, different aspects of preservation and conservation of the Muslim cultural heritage (places of worship, public buildings and ensembles, literary and documentary heritage, mother tongue, and social practices, rituals and festive events) are considered.
The paper focuses on three main issues: introduction of the European legal framework in the country, European structural and investment funding, and formation of European identity. The text analyzes of the impact of basic legal documents of the EU, which have become part of our national legislation; introduction of the principles of respect and protection of minorities; compliance with the recommendations to support national policies for cultural diversity. One of the political priorities of the Member States of the EU - culture and cultural heritage as a resource for social inclusion and implementation of the idea of sustainable development – is commented. An assessment of the use of EU funds in order to finance the preservation, conservation and socialization of Muslim cultural heritage is done. In conclusion, the paper commented on the degree of protection and preservation of the Muslim cultural heritage in Bulgaria at the beginning of 21st century.
Aspects of European integration: Recent developments in public policies towards Muslims in Greece and the European context
Konstantinos GOGOS (Athens)
The role and impact of Islam and Muslim communities in Europe has become an increasingly critical and important issue for European states, societies and politics. In Western Europe Muslim communities are mainly the outcome of a relatively recent phenomenon of migration, while in Southeastern Europe Muslims have a historical presence of several centuries. In both areas though, Muslim communities or minorities, groups or organizations are often related to highly debated issues of integration, legislation, politics and geopolitics.
When studying the issues of Muslims and Islam in Europe, Greece is a country that can serve as an interesting case-study, both as a Western European country and as Southeastern European one. Moreover, Muslims in Greece either belong to the historically established Muslim minority of Thrace or are "new" immigrants from the Muslim world, particularly when we take into consideration the last two decades.
The paper focuses on recent (Greek) state policies towards Muslim issues – related both to the Muslim minority in Thrace and the recently formed ("new") Muslim communities in the country. Aim of the paper is to discuss policies and decisions that foster the integration and institutionalization of Islam and Muslim structures in the country – in relation to and within the European context and experience.
Post-traumatic identity of Bosnian Muslims as a challenge for the European Integration Process
Olimpia DRAGOUNI (Warsaw)
It is practically impossible to speak about Bosnia and Hercegovina without reference to the divisions between three communities of Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Muslims (Bosniaks) and the context of the war of early 1990s.
Even if the post-Ottoman division into ethnic, religious based nations is somehow inherent to the Balkans, the Bosnian (esp. Bosniak) case seems to be remarkable. The 1995 Dayton Agreement enhanced territorial segregation along ethnic lines and ultra-nationalist projects of building separate nations on all sides. The second side of the coin is the post-traumatic identity of Bosnian Muslims built around the notion of self as an abandoned victim who never acknowledged full justice.
Currently the country is going through its slow European integration process. Researchers see the Europeanization as a chance for the citizens who mediate between identities based on chauvinistic calls for ethnic apartheid, and a EU providing hopes for supra-national identity based on values of democracy, inclusion, solidarity, and rule of law (Brljavac, 2012). The identification with "heterophilic Europe of multiple and mobile identities and a gradual erosion of the difference between "them" and "us" (Hudson, 2000) would be a way to overcome the identity fictions, especially that the support for EU membership is high. 88% Bosnians support EU, with Muslim community as the biggest advocate of the idea (97% in comparison to 85% Croats and 78% Serbs) (Kotonika, 2011).
However, the most recent tragic events of the Charlie Hebdo Attack in Paris in January 2015 revealed a different face of Bosniak post-traumatic identity, when a surprisingly high number of internet commentators (receiving hundreds of other comments and "likes" in support) refused to feel sorry for the victims of the attack.
Apart from the justifications based on religious beliefs (some felt offended by the cartoons), the various transformations of a strongly accentuated question: "Where was France when Srebrenica happened?" were reappearing in the cyberspace. Further variations of this attitude included sympathizing with Palestinians and other Muslim communities throughout the world as opposed to the concept of empathizing with the killed journalists. Another opposition: of the vaguely understood "Islamic values" against (similarly blurred) European ones was present in hundreds of individual comments.
Although one might assume that these opinions are marginal, I strongly suggest that their scale and context should not be underestimated, but rather perceived as symptomatic. The paper which I am hereby proposing would focus on explaining the reasons of the phenomenon and showing "civilization" allegiances of young Bosniaks. The source material for the analysis would be that of educational and popular press discourse of Bosnian Muslims enriched by examples of comments from internet forums and social media. The generalizations would be set in a proper historical and psychological context of post-traumatic identity. The paper would avoid moral judgments, proposing instead an explanatory approach.
Brljavac B., "Bosnia and Herzegovina and Europeanization: between ethnic-national and European identities", Open Democracy, 12/04/2012.
Hudson, R. (2000). "One Europe or many? Reflections on becoming European" Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 25: pp. 409 – 426.
Kotonika, M., «Waitlisted: The Western Balkans », Center for Strategic and International Studies, 05/04/11.
Facebook Profile of Klix.ba portal and ensuing comments, 2014/01/08, available:
Session: 1989 – A Turning Point in the European Integration of South-East Europe / 1989 – un tournant dans l'intégration européenne du Sud-Est européen
Organizer: Guy Burgel
Bucarest, métropole portuaire transfrontalière
Andreï FERARU (Paris)
Nous questionnons la métropolisation bucarestoise sous le double angle portuaire et transfrontalier, une dynamique particulière de plus en plus présente à l'échelle européenne où l'émiettement spatial est plus prononcé qu'ailleurs. Un premier exemple (et le plus spectaculaire) est la conurbation Copenhague/Malmö, en pleine synergie politique, économique et réglementaire mais c'est plutôt l'exception ; si on assiste, après l'effondrement du bloc soviétique, à beaucoup d'autres cas le long des fleuves/frontières ainsi que sur les bords de la Baltique, de la Mer du Nord et de l'Adriatique il s'agit le plus souvent des mouvements d'intégration spontanés, opportunistes voire spéculatifs, sans projets ni politiques affichés.
Bucarest participe de cette deuxième famille, et ce n'est pas étonnant car la capitale roumaine a toujours entretenu avec le Danube–frontière des relations paradoxales. Le port historique de Giurgiu est à l'abandon, le canal Bucarest–Danube censé rendre la capitale «portuaire» est «presqu'achevé» depuis trois décennies, mais sans aucun projet cohérent de zone portuaire bucarestoise, pendant que sur l'autre rive l'agglomération de Ruse atteint 250 000 habitants et son économie portuaire est florissante. Si les voisins bulgares jouissent de l'aéroport international de Bucarest, on ne connaît en revanche rien de l'implication de leurs entreprises dans l'économie métropolitaine bucarestoise ni, à l'inverse, les intérêts roumains dans les entreprises bulgares, ni des investissements fonciers, ni des «visions politiques» des deux côtés... Mais il y a intégration métropolitaine portuaire et transfrontalière de fait, on le sent dans l'ampleur des flux, sans qu'il s'agisse d'une stratégie étatique ou entrepreneuriale, mais d'un enchaînement de petits pas anodins qui fabriquent, ensemble et dans la durée, une tendance lourde.
The struggle for democracy in South Eastern Europe. Its effects on integration
Eva LONDO (Tirana)
The political and economic performance of the countries of Balkan has been very different from the rest of post-communist countries of Europe. The multinational and multicultural character of the region has greatly influenced political and socio-economic development of the countries of South-Eastern Europe. European integration has long been kept hostage by the tension and hostilities that has risen since the collapse of the communist system. The societal composition as well as the historical context mostly reflected at the political culture has affected further developments of each of the countries of Southern Europe in catching up with the challenges on integration.
As such we've seen the efforts that the former Yugoslavia countries have developed different economic pattern, with Slovenia and Croatia moving forward, whereas other countries such as Montenegro, Macedonia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina are lagging behind. Other countries such as Bulgaria, Rumania or Albania have had their fluctuations, with the first two though finding their path to overcome difficult periods. The disparities between the countries of the region are greatly influenced by the mere existence of social and cultural categories in the population as well as historical legacies of the past.
n the other hand, the systemic transformation that marked the end of the superficial national unity, has brought forth the hitherto suppressed nationalism (Michta 1994) where the case of Yugoslavia is the most crucial one. This was long associated with continuous conflict and systematic wars that affected democratic development. The only state that can be evaluated a success story in Slovenia that is the only homogeneous post -communist state of the region. Many political science scholars argue that the process of democratization may stimulate ethnic conflict which can, furthermore, be explained by legacies of the past. Moreover, The mere existence of cultural differences has brought about a degree of politization of ethnic differences (Vincent ___), which influences social and economic development. The process of politicising ethnicity and the ideology that validates it is still a prevailing issue in some countries of the former Yugoslav Republic, including Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and the newest republic of Kosovo, that is hugely affecting integration processes.
The paper will explore the reasons that are lagging countries of South Eastern Europe behind integration processes as compared to other counterparts of Eastern and Central Europe that has long before made their way to the European Union. The paper will put together scholarly studies that will explain the transformation processes in the countries of the post-communist bloc, and the way democratization is affecting development and integration.
Perspectives démographiques et économiques dans les Balkans, un quart de siècle après 1989
Guy BURGEL (Paris)
Pour les Balkans, 1989, avec la chute du mur de Berlin, est un séisme politique, économique et social, après près d'un demi-siècle de guerre froide, et de séparation entre les « blocs » européens de l'Est et de l'Ouest. Brutalement, l'ouverture au marché et la libre entreprise succèdent à l'économie planifiée, la liberté de circulation à l'enfermement autarcique, l'émancipation d'une classe moyenne et la croissance des écarts sociaux au nivellement programmé des systèmes communistes. L'ambition de la communication est de mesurer avec quelques indicateurs, économiques et démographiques, facilement collectés dans les bases de données accessibles, les traces objectives et diachroniques du changement, à trois moments d'observation régulièrement espacés : vers 1970, au moment où les séquelles de la 2ième Guerre Mondiale s'éloignent et où les régimes « socialistes » sont à leur apogée, vers 1990, au moment du grand « tournant », vers 2010, quand les transformations ont déjà eu le temps de produire des effets durables. Cette méthodologie simple, comparative dans le temps et l'espace, sera appliquée à quelques pays-témoins de l'aire balkanique : Albanie, Etats surgis du démembrement de la Yougoslavie, Bulgarie, Roumanie. Face à cfcet échantillon, la Grèce fournira l'indispensable complément géographique, et l'étalonnage nécessaire de l'économie capitaliste dans la région.
Session: European Traditions in the 19th and 20th Century in the Balkans – Continuity and Change: The Case of Serbia/Les Traditions européennes aux XIXe et XXe siècles –continuité et transformations: le cas de la Serbie
Organizer: Dušan BATAKOVIĆ
Serbia and the European Community before 1990. Forgotten history
Biser BANCHEV (Sofia)
The future and the obstacles faced by the relations between Serbia and the European Union are subject of many studies. An interesting fact is that most of these studies lack analysis on the historic experience gained when Serbia was part of Yugoslavia. Even recent European publications and handbooks do not mention the longstanding cooperation with Yugoslavia before 1989. This silence is completely undeserved. Yugoslavia has a long and successful collaboration with the created in 1958 European Economic Community. The relations between Serbia and the EEC follow and are synchronized with the process of integration with Western Europe. The relationship between the EEC and Yugoslavia can be divided into four phases. The first phase is from 1958 to 1968 when the SFRY develops its economic relations with each member state of the community individually. The second phase is from 1968 to 1976. It is characterized with the general regulation of economic and social issues. The third phase, from 1976 to 1989, is marked by particularly close economic and political ties. Yugoslavia is on the verge of associate membership. It is requested at the end of 1989, when the fourth phase begins. There are positive attitudes in relation to this membership on both sides. Concrete steps are taken, but there is no historic time for Yugoslavia to join the European Community.
Yugoslavia and interwar Europe: Problems and challenges
Dragan BAKIĆ (Belgrade)
The legacy of the Second Balkan and Great War was rather difficult in the Balkans, particularly for the two South Slav countries, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. The region of Vardar Macedonia remained a bone of contention that kept poisoning the relations between Belgrade and Sofia. Both countries claimed that the territory in question was rightfully their on account of nationality principle, history and tradition. The devoutly revanchist Bulgaria and the champion of status quo Yugoslavia stood on the opposite sides of the fence in the Balkans. On the other hand, the two peoples were kindred in terms of ethnicity, language, tradition and, as far as the Serbs and Bulgarians were concerned, religion. For that reason, there were also political currents in both countries that advocated a union between them which would result in a powerful bloc in the Balkans which would have considerable repercussions for balance of power in this part of Europe. This contingency was not lost sight of even amongst the Great Powers which calculated the effect it could have on their own particular interests. Contrary to the narrative of the ancient and irrational Balkan hatreds, this aspect of Serbo/Yugoslav-Bulgarian relations have been somewhat neglected. It was a sequel to the eminently European process dating back to the nineteenth century and it took place amidst the tensions typical of interwar period. It is the purpose of this paper to shed some light on the views, conceptions, actions and individuals which marked this strand of relations between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria that ultimately proved abortive.
French influences in building democracy in Serbia, 1839-1914
Dušan T. BATAKOVIĆ (Belgrade)
France was a prestigious synonym for civilization and culture, but also a desirable model in the processes of achieving political and civil liberties, throughtout 19th and early 20th century. France undoubtedly played a distinctive role in the development of Serbian society since the 1804 Serbian Revolution, a Balkan-size French revolution. from the initial social and political demands to the eventual profound transformation t the simultaneous unfolding of both social and national revolution. The doctrine of popular sovereignty according to which sovereign power is vested in the people — had a strong appeal in Serbia, in accordance with her political traditions and social situation: the principle was to be built into the very foundations of her developing political life. The revolutionary France, 1830 and 1848 Revolutions, Second and Third Republic, were constant inspiration for all political reformers in nineteenth and early twentieth century Serbia. The earliest direct application of a French constitutional model in Serbia — the revised Charte of 1830 (inspired by the as a basis for short-lived Sretenjski Ustav (Presentation Day Constitution) of 1835 — showed a considerable receptiveness of Serbian society to the ideas originating in the French constitutional and political experience. The particular appeal of the tenets of the French Revolution, as a set of values shaping the form of governance within the Serbian elites, went hand in hand with the increasing importance of political and economic ties between France and Serbia in tghe second half of the 19th century.The nationality principle, derived from the French doctrines of the age of Enlightenment, and tied with the principle of political liberty and civic equality, fitted perfectly into the egalitarian aspirations of an agrarian society such as Serbian was throughout the 19th and in the early 20th century. The French doctrines (liberalism, radicalism, socialisme, solidarisme) were taking root among the Serbian political elite, assuming, under the Radical governments in Serbia (1889–92, 1903–14), certain elements of a small-scale social revolution.
Political émigré from Tito's Yugoslavia and its role in anti-Yugoslav (anti-Tito) propaganda campaign in the USSR and the countries of people's democracy, 1948-1954
Kaori KIMURA (Moscow)
Deterioration of the relations between Belgrade and Moscow which caused in March 1948 led the countries of People's Democracy (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Poland) into the new stage of their diplomacy. Especially, after the publication of the resolution of the second meeting of the Cominform, the political climate in the "Eastern Block" was shortly changed. All of the leaders of those countries approved the Resolution, and they were involved in a powerful anti-Yugoslav (anti-Tito) media campaign from the late 1940's to the early 1950's. People saw a mountain of articles criticising Yugoslav politics in newspapers, heard radio broadcasts and some public trials almost every day.
At the beginning of conflict between Stalin and Tito thousands of Yugoslavs, including officers and students, were located abroad. They were mainly sent to study military and technical subjects in the countries of People's democracy, primarily in the USSR and Czechoslovakia. Their position was also, accordingly, changed. Most of them were tend to trust Cominform's line, and refused to return home. They emigrated to the countries where they lived at that time and tried to organize small groups of émigrés.
Many Yugoslav diplomats who were outside Yugoslavia at the beginning of conflict also declared for the Cominform's line. Most notable people who led the Yugoslav émigrés were; Slobodan Golubovic, former Yugoslavian ambassador in Romania; Momcilo Jeshic, former official in Yugoslav embassy in Oslo; Slobodan Ivanovic, former press attaché in Washington. Besides those people there were people who were Cominformist in Yugoslavia. However, it was too difficult to across the border and escape from Yugoslavia, most of attempts were failed. Some Yugoslav Cominformists managed to cross the Yugoslav border, one of the most notable people was Pero Popivoda, who was Major General of Air Force, later became one of the leaders of Yugoslav emigration in USSR and the countries of People's democracy.
For the purpose of carrying out the anti-Yugoslav (anti-Tito) propaganda the Soviet leaders tried to use Yugoslav émigrés in the USSR and the countries of People's democracy. Yugoslav émigrés in those countries formed their organization, which published newspapers, broadcasted radio programs and took part in the political (sometimes diplomatic) events. Later, in 1951, a central organization of Yugoslav émigrés in USSR and countries of People's democracy, which was called "the Coordination center" was formed and activated their activities.
The aim of this paper is revealing the role of Yugoslav political émigré in anti-Yugoslav (anti-Tito) campaign in the USSR and the countries of People's democracy from 1948 to 1954 in the context of international relations in Central and South-Eastern Europe and the Soviet factor in the "Eastern Block". The author of this paper is trying to figure out how the Soviet leaders tried to use Yugoslav émigrés in anti-Yugoslav campaign on the base of documents in Russian, Serbian and Hungarian archives.
European ideas in the 19th century Serbia: Varieties and changes
Miloš KOVIĆ (Belgrade)
Liberalism was the central political concept and the most important political ideology in the 19th century Europe. Conservatism was an answer to the liberal challenge; democracy and socialism were derived from liberalism. Moreover, in the course of the 19th century liberalism passed through so many varieties and changes, ant its basic principles were so widely adopted, that until 1914 it was not clearly recognizable as the distinct political ideology. This is why the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century was acknowledged by the contemporaries and scholars as the golden age of liberalism.
All these features were clearly recognizable in the case of the 19th century Serbian liberalism. It was the main ideology in the 19th century Serbia. The political ideas of the Serbian conservatives were a reaction to the pretences of the liberals; however, in time they adopted the basic liberal principles. Serbian socialists came from the liberal ranks and they returned to them, transformed into democrats, when they had to face all the obstacles in implementing their socialist ideas in the Serbian society. The 19th century ended with the liberalism triumphant in Serbia, during the period of the rule of the King Petar Karađorđević, between the 1903 coup d'etat and 1914. At the same time, in the course of the century, Serbian liberalism used to change its shape and even names. However, its core principles (the popular sovereignty, parliamentarism, rule of law) were the basis of the ideas of the leading, mainstream Serbian intellectuals and ideologists of the age: Jevrem Grujić, Vladimir Jovanović, Svetozar Miletić, Nikola Pašić, Jovan Skerlić, Jovan Cvijić.
Serbia and the accession to the EU after year 2000
Slobodan G. MARKOVIĆ (Belgrade)
The change of political power in Serbia in October 2000 signified the end of international isolation and a new beginning in the relations with the EU. However, mutual relations were complicated but at least three elements: 1. Complicated structure of Yugoslav federation and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, 2. Co-operation with the Hague Tribunal for war crimes in ex-Yugoslavia, and 3. Unresolved Kosovo issue. Due to the combination of all three elements the process of cooperation with the EU witnessed serious oscillations and breaks in the first decade of the 21st century. Enlargement fatigue has appeared in the second decade of the century as a serious obstacle for EU accession of all the countries of the Western Balkans.
Mutual relations demonstrated a serious test in 2012 when a party formerly known for its anti-Western rhetoric came to power in Serbia. However, the EU accession remained strategic goal of Serbia. Specific issue in Serbia has remained its policy of military neutrality which has so far blocked any effort for NATO integration. By 2015, Serbia remained the only country of the Western Balkans that explicitly stated that it had no intention to join NATO.
European cultural models in interwar Yugoslavia
Veljko STANIĆ (Belgrade)
The cultural life of interwar Yugoslavia mirrored intensively diversified European scientific, philosophical, literary and artistic paradigms. Focusing on the images of Europe, its models and anti–models, as well as their interference with the discourses of national characters and identities, this paper aims to present a transcultural and transnational perspective on the development of South Slavs' intellectual thought in the interwar period. Therefore, it takes into consideration a broad spectrum of ideas that shaped main ideological and aesthetic canons ranging from liberal, rationalist milieu of pre–1918 elites through expressionist and surrealist revolts of the 1920s and early 1930s, concluding both with the radical conservatism and antimodernism of the Right and leftist, social literature and art which emerged in the decade preceding the World War Two.
Keywords: Europe, Yugoslavia, Intellectuals, Conservatism, Liberalism, Expressionism, Surrealism, Antimodernism, Social Literature
Tito's No to European integrations
Vojislav PAVLOVIĆ (Belgrade)
Yugoslavia's war leader and lifelong president, was initially the head of a small communist party before the Second World War. His political career was based on the unlimited power the communist party had in the second Yugoslavia after 1945. Therefore all attempts to reform the one party rule in Yugoslavia Tito considered as a threat to his almost unlimited powers. The sacking of the head of the secret police and his vice president, Aleksandar Rankovic in 1966, created the conditions for economic and political reforms. The federalization of the, until then united, communist party, in 6 republic parties, was followed by a process of transformation of the republics in closed economic and political systems that rivalled with each other. Various communist leaderships in Yugoslav republics tried to gather real political support by following a program of nationalistic and democratic reforms. Important part of such reforms was the process of closer cooperation with the Western democracies, and with the European Economic Community.
At the start of the process of reforms Tito declared himself in favor of the opening of Yugoslav society towards the West. Yugoslav citizens obtained the right to travel, and even to settle in the West, thus they were able to help Yugoslav economy by sending money to their relatives in the country. However, when the process of reforms started to encroach on his personal prerogatives, by way of diminishing the role of the federal government and the communist party, Tito decided to put a stop on the reforms. In consequence his economic strategy changed. The process of integration of Yugoslav economy in the world trade, which was effectuated with ever more increasing trade with EEC, was halted. EEC, even though it was the most important economic partner of Yugoslavia, was seen also as a political influence that was menacing the political order on which Tito's personal rule was based. Therefore, at the start of the seventies Tito decided to change the leaderships in the republics, to install more obedient ones, and to start a program of autarchic economic development based on western loans. Instead of following the path of further integration in the world market, which would inevitably impose also democratic reforms, Tito opted for a program of public works, and a new form of Yugoslav socialism, self-management, which was entirely financed by western loans. Between open market and democracy on one side and his personal rule on the other, Tito had no doubts when he was called upon to make a choice.
Session: Media and the European Integration of South-East Europe/Les médias et l'intégration européenne de l'Europe du Sud-Est
Organizers: Maria NEIKOVA, Gentiana ŞKURA
Media and reconciliation in the Western Balkans
Genka GEORGIEVA (Sofia)
Reconciliation is a key pillar of the post-war stabilization and association process launched back in 2003 to help the Western Balkan states recover from the recent post Yugoslav wars, build sincere good-neighbourly relations, and prepare for a full-fledged membership in the European Union.
Normative theories ascertain certain standards to be applied to actions by the media, and particularly to defining expectations how media should functions in order to achieve the set of social values desired both by the elite and the society at large. As this set of values in highly contextual, media are conceptualized as socially responsible actors in complex socio-historical processes, including those of constructing and maintaining collective memories of the past.
The paper starts with a summary of the main normative approaches to media responsibility, and continues with a review of reviews the various theoretical concepts of the role of media with regard to post-conflict reconciliation processes – "peace journalism" (Galtung, Lynch and McGoldrick), "conflict sensitive journalism" (Howard), "mediation journalism" (Manoff), etc.
Using recent case studies of media publications in Serbia, the paper illustrates how the traumatic past re/de-constructed by the media impacts the post war reconciliation process between Serbia and its neighbouring Western Balkan states. Images of the wars and memories of the hostilities are still very much present in the lives of the people in all Western Balkan states – both through individual and collective memories, and they interact with the realities constructed by the media when presenting news and comments of today's events. Unsolved legal disputes, including on the issue of genocide in the International Court of Justice, controversial decisions by international bodies, building of memorials and museums to re-open historical issues and the ever present hate speech are just some of the examples how media can revive again old mistrust and hatred and create a new reality blocking the road to reconciliation among the peoples and the countries in the region.
Based on the publications analyzed, the paper shows also the distinctions in the hate speech that is still applied by media - the traditional one, based on negative stereotyping and scape-goating, the low-intensity hate speech in the constructs of cultural memories of the past, and the politically incorrect speech about the "other".
The main conclusion of the paper is that professional and truthful media reporting leads to greater openness of the societies and better understanding among the countries of the region.
The daily newspapers role informing on EU Topics and Kosovo's EU Integration Process
Lumnije BAJRAMI (Prishtina)
The main aim of this article is to convey a research on the main national Kosovo daily newspaper's reporting about EU important topics, about the challenges of the process of integration of Kosova to the European Union and the newspaper's countribution to the awareness of the priorities associated with this process. This study involves three months content analysis of newspaper article based on simple measure of the European Union topics, analyze editorials and other opinion articles in the media covering both the EU and local agenda of integration process. As it was already defined, journalist mission as watchdog of government is very important since the newspapers objectives are to inform the civil society and raise their awareness about the government activities related to the process of integration to EU. The main issues that will be the focus of this study are : What's the impact of the main Kosovo newspapers in their role as watchdog towards the government and what's their contribution during their work in covering EU topics? To what extent are these newspapers informing the public opinion on the challenges that the country is facing in this stage? How could they contribute more to this process and what are the necessary measures that need to be undertaken in order to conect the public opinion to the current debates of EU public sphere and especially to the EU enlargement process ?
Keywords: media, newspapers, watchdog, journalist, European Integration, reporting, public opinion, EU enlargement process
Europeanization and peripheralisation of Bulgarian public sphere. A comparative analysis of 2014 European elections' media coverage in the most popular newspaper websites in Bulgaria and the UK
Ralitsa KOVACHEVA (Sofia)
The role of media in the process of European integration of South-East Europe is vital, for at least two main reasons. According to Habermas'concept of the public sphere, in a democratic society media provide an arena for public deliberation, while acting themselves as an influential actor in the public debates. As for the European integration,"media actors are entrusted with making the European level visible and accessible to citizens" . In this sense, the research attention is reasonably focused on the process of Europeanisation of national public spheres, which can be defined as "a (gradual) process in which 'Europe' becomes more visible and national news is to a greater extent synchronized thematically with other European countries' news" .
There are numerous studies on the Europeanisation, which however are mainly focused on the old member states. As T. Risse points out, we still don't have sufficient data for the new Member States. In my report I am going to addres this problem by presenting the results of my own empirical study conducted in 2014 - a comparative analysis of 2014 European elections' media coverage in the most popular newspaper websites in Bulgaria and the UK. The study was conducted in five months (February-June 2014). It covered 8 media - The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Independent, Daily Mail, 24chasa.bg, Dnevnik.bg, Trud.bg and Segabg.com. 3356 publications have been coded and analyzed. Using content and comparative analysis, the study reveals the main disadvantages of media coverage of European issues in Bulgarian media: deformations due to the paid coverage of the election campaign, as editorial content is mixed with paid publications; a lack of analytical publications - analysis, opinions and comments; an insufficient variety of speakers and a strong domination of political and institutional actors; a lack of discussion on topics such as EU membership and the future of the EU; media do not even try to relate current Bulgarian problems with similar problems in other European countries and the EU as a hole, for instance the "democratic (legitimacy) deficit," the gap between the elite and the citizens, growing economic inequality and its relation to the quality of democracy, etc.
As a result, it can be assumed that a process oposit to the Europeanisation is taking place – I call it the process of peripheralisation: when national public spheres do not actively participate in the European debate, due to the lack of wide and informed national public debates on European issues, so they have no discursive influence on EU debate. In addition, we could also talk about peripheralisation in relation to not applying the best European practices in terms of media regulation, professional and ethical standards.